Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 1st December 2015

  1. Transitional phrases

  2. Work in teams to produce ideas for the speaking exam

  3. Use a writing template to write draft presentations to share with the class

  4. Ephriem’s & Inga’s presentations

  5. Gender equality in the UK & other countries – statistics

Discourse Markers in speech

Transitional phrases videos

Ephriem’s presentation: What is nuclear fusion?

Inga’s presentation: The Strangest “Sports” In The World prezi

Today’s words:

mind you

a phrase introducing something that should be taken into consideration. He’s very well dressed, but mind you, he’s gotplenty of money to buy clothes. Lisa is unfriendly to me, but mind you, she’s never very nice to anyone.

furthermore adverb

UK   /ˌfɜː.ðəˈmɔːr/  US   /ˈfɝː.ðɚ.mɔːr/ formal

B2 in ​addition; more ​importantly:The ​house is ​beautiful. Furthermore, it’s in a ​greatlocation.

as for

considering or ​speaking about:As for the ​money, we’ll ​talk about that ​later.

optimistic adjective

UK   /ˌɒp.tɪˈmɪs.tɪk/  US   /ˌɑːp.tə-/

B2 hoping or ​believing that good things will ​happen in the ​future:She is optimistic about her ​chances of ​winning a ​goldmedal.

sequencing noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈsiː.kwən.sɪŋ/

the ​process of ​combining things in a ​particularorder, or ​discovering the ​order in which they are ​combined:A ​commonsign of ​dyslexia is that the sequencing of ​letters when ​spelling words may be ​incorrect.

whereas conjunction

UK   /weərˈæz/  US   /werˈæz/

B2 compared with the ​fact that; but:He must be about 60, whereas his ​wifelooks about 30.You ​eat a ​hugeplate of ​food for ​lunch, whereas I have just a ​sandwich.

consequently adverb

UK   /ˈkɒn.sɪ.kwənt.li/  US   /ˈkɑːn-/

B2 as a ​result:I ​spent most of my ​money in the first ​week and consequently had very little to ​eat by the end of the ​holiday.

moreover adverb

UK   /ˌmɔːˈrəʊ.vər/  US   /ˌmɔːrˈoʊ.vɚ/ formal

B2 (used to ​addinformation) also and more ​importantly:The ​wholereport is ​badly written. Moreover, it’s ​inaccurate.

summarize verb [I or T]

(UK usually summarise) UK   /ˈsʌm.ər.aɪz/  US   /-ə.raɪz/

C1 to ​express the most ​importantfacts or ​ideas about something or someone in a ​short and ​clearform:I’ll just summarize the ​mainpoints of the ​argument in a few words.To summarize, we ​believe the ​company cannot ​continue in ​itspresentform.

initially adverb

UK   US   /ɪˈnɪʃ.əl.i/

B2 at the ​beginning:Initially, most ​peopleapproved of the new ​plan.The ​damage was ​far more ​serious than initially ​believed.

Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 26rd November 2015



  1. Phrasal verbs with out + games
  2. Advertising and International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
    25 November
  3. “You are the teacher” give speaking feedback to your peers.

Today’s words:

Jenny had a new haircut, everyone said it looked great, apart from Bill he said he didn’t think it was very original but I think he’s jealous because he’s bald and he’s just being petty.

The manager keeps criticising my driving skills. He says I don’t go fast enough but I do all my work and turn up on time. He’s just being petty.









Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 25rd November 2015


  1. Learn more about phrasal verbs

  2. play phrasal verbs naughts and crosses

  3. play online phrasal verb games: http://www.stuff.co.uk/phrasal.htmhttp://a4esl.org/q/j/ck/fb-phrasalverbs.html

  4. Phrasal verbs prezi

  5. Today’s topic – Social media & the traditional media

  6. Presentation about Nigeria by Francis

Nigerian food & plantain:


Today’s words:

hoax noun [C]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

a ​plan to ​deceive someone, such as ​telling the ​police there is a ​bombsomewhere when there is not one, or a ​trick:The ​bombthreatturned out to be a hoax.He’d made a hoax callclaiming to be the ​president.

hoax verb [T]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

Francis asks, why is ‘everyone’ a singular noun?

everybody / everyone / everything

It is true that everybody and everyone refers to everybody and everyone in a group of people and everything refers to everything ina group of things. Even so, they are still perceived individually or as a totality, so the singular verb form is still maintained:

  • Is everybody happy with that? Does everyone understand my position?
  • Everything she owns has been stolen.

Everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere are indefinite pronouns.

We use them to refer to a total number of people, things and places. We write them as one word:

His name was Henry but everyone called him Harry.

All your clothes are clean. I washed everything yesterday.

The sand got everywhere, into eyes, hair, tents, cups of tea, camera lenses.

We use everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere with singular verbs:

Everybody knows the truth.

At night, with the lights shining on the water, everything looks different.

We couldn’t get a seat. Everywhere was so crowded.

aggravate verb [T] (MAKE WORSE)

to make a ​badsituationworse:Attempts to ​restrictparking in the ​citycentre have ​furtheraggravated the ​problem of ​trafficcongestion. to make a ​diseaseworse:The ​treatment only aggravated the ​condition.

aggravate verb [T] (ANNOY)

informal to ​annoy someone:Stop aggravating me, will you!

escalate verb [I or T]

UK   US   /ˈes.kə.leɪt/

to ​become or make something ​becomegreater or more ​serious:His ​financialproblems escalated after he ​becameunemployed.The ​decision to escalate UN ​involvement has been made in the ​hopes of a ​swift end to the ​hostilities.The escalating ​rate of ​inflation will ​almostcertainlybring escalating ​prices.

exaggerate verb [I or T]

UK   /ɪɡˈzædʒ.ə.reɪt/  US   /-ɚ.eɪt/

C1 to make something ​seemlarger, more ​important, ​better, or ​worse than it really is:The ​threat of ​attack has been greatly exaggerated.Don’t exaggerate – it wasn’t that ​expensive.I’m not exaggerating – it was the ​worstmeal I’ve ​evereaten in my ​life.

anonymous adjective

UK   /əˈnɒn.ɪ.məs/  US   /-ˈnɑː.nə-/

C2 made or done by someone whose ​name is not ​known or not made ​public:The ​money was ​donated by an anonymous benefactor.Police said an anonymous callerwarned that a ​bomb was about to go off.An ​attempt to ​implant an ​embryo using an ​egg from an anonymous woman donor was ​unsuccessful.He ​received an anonymous letterthreatening to ​disclosedetails of his ​affair if he didn’t ​pay the ​money.For ​reasons of ​personalsafety, the ​informantwishes to remainanonymous.

reliable adjective

UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪə.bl̩/

B1 Someone or something that is reliable can be ​trusted or ​believed because he, she, or it ​works or ​behaves well in the way you ​expect:Is ​yourwatch reliable?reliable ​informationGideon is very reliable – if he says he’ll do something, he’ll do it.

rely on/upon sb/sth

phrasal verb with rely UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪ/ verb

B2 to need a ​particular thing or the ​help and ​support of someone or something in ​order to ​continue, to ​workcorrectly, or to ​succeed:[+ -ing verb] The ​success of this ​project relies on everyone makingan ​effort.I rely on you for good ​advice.[+ to infinitive] I’m relying on the ​garage tofix the ​car by ​tomorrow.B2 to ​trust someone or something or to ​expect him, her, or it to ​behave in a ​particular way:British ​weather can never be relied on – it’s always ​changing.[+ -ing verb] Don’t rely on ​finding me here when you get back (= I might have gone).

fictional adjective

UK   US   /ˈfɪk.ʃən.əl/

C2 imaginary:a fictional ​storyfictional ​characters

peer verb [I usually + adv/prep]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

C2 to ​lookcarefully or with ​difficulty:When no one ​answered the ​door, she peered through the ​windowto ​see if anyone was there.The ​driver was peering into the ​distancetrying to ​read the ​roadsign.

More examples

peer noun [C]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

peer noun [C] (EQUAL)

C1 a ​person who is the same ​age or has the same ​socialpositionor the same ​abilities as other ​people in a ​group:Do you ​think it’s ​true that ​teenagegirls are less ​self-confident than ​theirmale peers?He wasn’t a ​greatscholar, but as a ​teacher he had few peers (= not as many ​people had the same ​ability as him).

Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 23rd November 2015

  • Vocabulary revision naughts & crosses

  • Today’s topic – Social media & the traditional media

  • We’re going to look through some newspapers and consider the differences

  • Used to, To be used to, could get used to – find someone who

  • 3 different speakers – can you predict the topics?

  • Aimee Mullins (03.18 – 05.34)

  • Nadia Al-Sakkaf (06.42 – 12.15) 

  • Geena Rocero (00.12 – 04.31)

Today’s words:

certainly adverb

UK   /ˈsɜː.tən.li/  US   /ˈsɝː-/

certainly adverb (IN NO DOUBT)

A2 used to ​replycompletely or to ​emphasize something and show that there is no ​doubt about it:She certainly had a ​friend called ​Mark, but I don’t ​know whether he was her ​boyfriend.“This is ​rather a ​difficultquestion.” “Yes, it’s certainly not ​easy.”“Do you ​think more ​money should be given to ​education?” “Certainly!”“Had you ​forgotten about ​ouranniversary?” “Certainly not! I’ve ​reserved a ​table at Michel’s ​restaurant for this ​evening.”A2 used when ​agreeing or ​disagreeingstrongly to a ​request:“Could you ​lend me £10?” “Certainly.”“Did you take any ​money out of my ​purse?” “Certainly not!”

verify verb [T]

UK   US   /ˈver.ɪ.faɪ/

C1 to ​prove that something ​exists or is ​true, or to make ​certainthat something is ​correct:Are you ​able to verify ​youraccount/​allegation/​report/​theory?These ​numbers are ​surprisingly high and they’ll have to be verified.[+ (that)] Under interrogation, she verified (that) the ​tapes were ​authentic.

exclusive adjective (ONLY FOR SOME)

C1 limited to only one ​person or ​group of ​people:This ​room is for the exclusive use of ​guests.an exclusive interviewB2 expensive and only for ​people who are ​rich or of a high ​socialclass:an exclusive ​privatecluban exclusive ​part of ​town

Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 22nd November 2015


  1. BKSB English diagnostics & individual learning continued ……. 🙂

  2. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/english_lessons/used-to-exercises

  3. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-18091.php

  4. News: ESOL has organised a trip to the Clothes Show at the Birmingham NEC for Tuesday 8th December 2015

    Efrem’s presentation

    Next week we will be looking at the National Careers service website – Action plan – find your career

    level 2 wow factor ideas 2

level 2 wow factor ideas 1

disposable heroes of hiphoprisy, Television the drug of the nation – video clip!

Today’s words:

intrusion noun [C or U]

UK   US  /ɪnˈtruː.ʒən/

C2 an ​occasion when someone goes into a ​place or ​situation where they are not ​wanted or ​expected to be:They ​complained about ​excessivegovernment intrusion (= ​unwantedinvolvement) intotheirlegitimateactivities.His ​phonecall was a welcome intrusion into an ​otherwisetediousmorning.

anxiety noun (WORRY)

B2 [U] an ​uncomfortablefeeling of ​nervousness or ​worry about something that is ​happening or might ​happen in the ​future:Children ​normallyfeel a lot of anxietyabouttheir first ​day at ​school.That ​explains his anxiety over his ​health.

flimsy adjective (THIN)

very ​thin, or ​easilybroken or ​destroyed:You won’t be ​warm enough in that flimsy ​dress.We ​spent the ​night in a flimsy ​woodenhut.a flimsy ​cardboardbox

flimsy adjective (DIFFICULT TO BELIEVE)

A flimsy ​argument, ​excuse, etc. is ​weak and ​difficult to ​believe:When I ​asked him why he was late, he gave me some flimsy excuse about having ​cartrouble.

extent noun [S or U]

UK   US   /ɪkˈstent/

B2 area or ​length; ​amount:From the ​top of the Empire State Building, you can ​see the full extent ofManhattan (= the ​area it ​covers).We don’t ​yetknow the extent of his ​injuries (= how ​bad his ​injuries are).

hound noun [C]

UK   US   /haʊnd/

a ​type of ​dog used for ​hunting

hound verb [T]

UK   US   /haʊnd/

to ​chase someone or to ​refuse to ​leave someone ​alone, ​especiallybecause you ​want to get something from them:The ​reporters wouldn’t ​stop hounding her.


Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 19th November 2015

phrasal verb

  1. an idiomatic phrase consisting of a verb and another element, typically either an adverb, as in break down, or a preposition, for example see to, or a combination of both, such as look down on.


    1. Phrasal verbs warmer

    2. 19th November is International Toilet Day

    3. phrasal verbs with OUT, TAKE, DOWN, BREAK & UP at the end

    4. Exam practice PRESENTATIONs on the media & newspapers

    5. Exam practice listening

    6. Presentation

    7. Future forms review (homework)

    Phrasal verbs

    1. Some idiot turned off the fridge, and the milk has gone off.
    2. He looked quite convincing dressed as a woman but his moustache gave him away. She looks young but her wrinkles give her true age away. The teacher wanted to know who had cheated in the exam and the pupil’s excellent vocabulary gave away the fact that they had used google to copy their writing.
    3. The game of chess originates from India and goes back about two thousand years. The history of my family goes back all the way to Ireland in the 1820s.
    4. I need a break. All this non-stop work is getting me down. I don’t like all these phrasal verbs, they’re too hard. It’s getting me down all this confusing language.
    5. What exactly are you getting at? Have I done something wrong?
    6. No, darling, it looks terrible, I think you’ll find that purple spiky hair went out decades ago.
    7. I was offered a great job in America, but I had to turn it down because I’m looking after my mother.
    8. I know you’re busy, but can’t you just drop in for a minute and say hello to the guys?
    9. She’s brilliant. We spent weeks on this software problem, getting nowhere. Then she arrived and came up with a solution straightaway.
    10. How can we get round the problem of over-staffing without actually sacking people?
    11. It’s too late to change your mind now. You’ve handed in your resignation.
    12. After my husband passed away I was grief stricken for years – well, weeks anyway.

    Today’s words

    rather adverb

    UK   /ˈrɑː.ðər/  US   /ˈræð.ɚ/

    rather adverb (SMALL AMOUNT)

    B1 quite; to a ​slightdegree:It’s rather ​cold today, isn’t it?That’s rather adifficultbook – here’s an ​easier one for you.The ​train was rather too ​crowded for a ​comfortablejourney.She ​answered the ​phone rather sleepily.I rather ​doubt I’ll be ​able to come to ​yourparty.
    instead of; used ​especially when you ​prefer one thing to another:I ​think I’d like to ​stay at ​home this ​evening rather than go out

    stress noun

    UK   US   /stres/

    stress noun (WORRY)

    B1 [C or U] greatworrycaused by a ​difficultsituation, or something that ​causes this ​condition:People under a lot of stress may ​experienceheadaches, ​minorpains, and ​sleeping difficulties.Yoga is a very ​effectivetechnique for combating stress.the stresses and ​strains of the ​jobstress-​relatedillness

    More examples

    stress noun (PRONUNCIATION)

    B2 [C or U] the way that a word or ​syllable is ​pronounced with ​greaterforce than other words in the same ​sentence or other ​syllables in the same word:The ​meaning of a ​sentence often ​depends on stress and ​intonation.When “​insert” is a ​verb, the stress is on the second ​syllable, but when it is a ​noun, the stress is on the first ​syllable.
    a road bypass – a road that bypasses a town (to keep traffic out of the centre. A heart bypass – a way to send the blood to bypass a problem area in your heart.

Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 18th November 2015

1 Are you a slave to your mobile?

2 Broadsheet & tabloid newspapers – comparison of Prince Harry story

4 Presentation

3 Compare the styles of broadsheets & tabloids.

4. Exam practice

Words of the day:

spam noun [U] (COMPUTING)

C1 informal disapproving unwantedemail, usually ​advertisements:I get so much spam at ​work.

concise adjective

UK   US   /kənˈsaɪs/

short and ​clear, ​expressing what ​needs to be said without ​unnecessary words:Make ​youranswersclear and concise.

adverb UK   US   /-li/

sensational adjective

UK   US   /senˈseɪ.ʃən.əl/

C2 approving very good, ​exciting, or ​unusual:a sensational ​sportscar/​dressShe ​looks sensational (= ​extremelyattractive) in her new ​dress.C1 disapproving Sensational ​newsreports and ​articles are ​intended to be ​shocking and ​excitingrather than ​serious:Some of the more sensational ​newspapers have given a lot of ​coverage to the ​scandal.

objective adjective

UK   US   /əbˈdʒek.tɪv/

B2 based on ​realfacts and not ​influenced by ​personalbeliefs or ​feelings:an objective and ​impartialreportI can’t really be objective when I’m ​judging my daughter’s ​work.

Opposite: subjective adjective

UK   US   /səbˈdʒek.tɪv/

C1 influenced by or ​based on ​personalbeliefs or ​feelings, ​ratherthan ​based on ​facts:I ​think my ​husband is the most ​handsome man in the ​world, but I ​realize my ​judgment is ​rather subjective.More ​specific and less subjective ​criteria should be used in ​selectingpeople for ​promotion within the ​company.

circumstance noun

UK   /ˈsɜː.kəm.stɑːns/  US   /ˈsɝː.kəm.stæns/

B2 [C usually plural] a ​fact or ​event that makes a ​situation the way it is:I ​think she ​coped very well under the circumstances.Obviously we can’t ​deal with the ​problem until we ​know all the circumstances.She ​died in ​suspicious circumstances.

spam noun [U] (COMPUTING)

C1 informal disapproving unwantedemail, usually ​advertisements:I get so much spam at ​work.

back sth up

phrasal verb with back UK   US   /bæk/ verb

C2 to ​prove something is ​true:His ​claims are ​backed up by ​recentresearch.B2 to make an ​extracopy of ​computerinformation:Make ​sure you back up ​yourfiles.

back (sth) up

phrasal verb with back UK   US   /bæk/ verb

to ​drivebackwards
guinea pigs

Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 16th & 17th November 2015


    1. Continue your BKSB diagnosis – boring but important

    2. News about the City & Guilds Level 2 Reading exam

    3. Send me your gallery art photos for tomorrow’s lesson

    4. Enrichment: visiting speakers & visits – who would you like to come and visit you? Where would you like to go?

    5. What is art? What different ways can you think of to express yourself?

    6. The man who creates art in his sleep

    7. The Appropriation Artist – Your Instagram image could be his $40,000 artwork

    8. Salford City College – City Campus – The Wow Factor ideas

    9. The Trafalgar Square Fourth Plinth Art Project

    10. Anthony Gormley’s Fourth Plinth Project


    12. Sarah’s Prezi presentation on coping strategies for stress.

    13. Early finish + Meetings with Mark (part 1 & 2 of 6)

      P1060197 P1060198 P1060200

describing art example sentences:

job enrichment noun [U]

UK   US   (also job enhancement) HR

moving adjective (FEELINGS)

B2 causingstrongfeelings of sadness or ​sympathy:a very moving ​storyI ​find some of Brahms’s ​music deeplymoving.

unconventional adjective

UK   US  /ˌʌn.kənˈven.ʃən.əl/

C1 different from what is ​usual or from the way most ​people do things:an unconventional ​childhood/​lifestyle/​marriage

thought-provoking adjective

UK   /ˈθɔːt.prəˈvəʊk.ɪŋ/ US   /ˈθɑːt.prəˌvoʊk-/

making you ​think a lot about a ​subject:a thought-provoking ​book/​film


Level 2 Group 2 – 12th November 2015


    1. Politics – left & right


2 Broadsheet & tabloid newspapers – comparison of today’s main stories

3 Compare the styles of broadsheets & tabloids.

4. Listen to people talking about newspapers. Internet vs newspapers.

5. Presentation

news headlines: Dog bites man. Man bites dog.

Happy celebrity goes shopping with his family and buys potatoes.

Celebrity couple at war. She throws him out of the house and swears to take all his money.



homophobia noun [U]

UK   /ˌhəʊ.məˈfəʊ.bi.ə/  US   /ˌhoʊ.məˈfoʊ-/

a ​fear or ​dislike of ​gaypeople


adjective UK   US   /-bɪk/

a homophobic ​attitude

xenophobia noun [U]

UK   /ˌzen.əˈfəʊ.bi.ə/  US   /-ˈfoʊ-/

C2 extremedislike or ​fear of foreigners, ​theircustoms, ​theirreligions, etc.

an eagle swoops

swoop verb [I]

UK   US   /swuːp/

to ​move very ​quickly and ​easily through the ​air, ​especiallydown from a ​height in ​order to ​attack:The ​eagle swooped down to ​snatch a ​youngrabbit. informal to make a ​suddenattack on a ​place or ​group of ​people in ​order to ​surround and ​catch them:Undercover ​police swooped on three ​houses in the ​city at 5.00 this ​morning.

inflation noun [U]

UK   US   /ɪnˈfleɪ.ʃən/

B2 a ​general, ​continuousincrease in ​prices:high/​low inflationthe ​rate of inflation13 ​percent inflation

blow verb (SEND OUT AIR)

B1 [I or T] to ​move and make ​currents of ​air, or to be ​moved or make something ​move on a ​current of ​air:The ​wind was blowing harder every ​minute.

blow noun (HIT)

C2 [C] a hard ​hit with a ​hand or a ​weapon:a ​sharp blow to the ​stomach

More examples

blow noun (BAD EVENT)

C2 [C] an ​unexpectedevent that has a ​damagingeffect on someone or something:Losing his ​job was a ​severe blow to his ​confidence.Her ​death came as a ​terrible blow to her ​parents.

raid noun [C]

UK   US   /reɪd/

C2 a ​shortsuddenattack, usually by a ​smallgroup of ​people:The ​commandos made/​staged/​carried out a ​daring raid (on the ​enemy).planes on a bombing raid the ​act of ​entering a ​place by ​force in ​order to ​steal from it:Millions of ​dollars were ​stolen in a bank raid last ​night.C2 an ​occasion when the ​policeenter a ​placesuddenly in ​orderto ​find someone or something:The ​drugs were ​found during a ​police raid on the ​house.

probe verb [I or T]

UK   /prəʊb/  US   /proʊb/

to ​try to ​discoverinformation that other ​people do not ​wantyou to ​know, by ​askingquestionscarefully and not ​directly:The ​interviewer probed ​deep into her ​privatelife.Detectives ​questioned him for ​hours, probing for any inconsistencies in his ​story.The ​article probes (= ​tries to ​describe and ​explain) the ​mysteries of ​nationalism in ​modernEurope. to ​examine something with a ​tool, ​especially in ​order to ​findsomething that is ​hidden:They probed in/into the ​mud with a ​specialdrill.

havoc noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈhæv.ək/

confusion and ​lack of ​order, ​especiallycausingdamage or ​trouble:The ​storm wreaked (= ​caused) havoc in the ​garden, ​uprootingtrees and ​blowing a ​fence down.The ​delay played (= ​caused) havoc withtheirtravelarrangements.

haul verb [T]

UK   /hɔːl/  US   /hɑːl/

C2 to ​pull something ​heavyslowly and with ​difficulty:They hauled the ​boat out of the ​water.She hauled herself up into the ​tree. to take something or someone ​somewhere, ​especially by ​force:FBI ​agents hauled awayboxes of ​records.The ​police hauled him off to ​jail in ​front of his ​wholefamily.

dump verb [T] (PUT DOWN)

C2 to put down or ​drop something in a ​careless way:He came in with four ​shoppingbags and dumped them on the ​table.

More examples

dump verb [T] (GET RID OF)

C1 to get ​rid of something ​unwanted, ​especially by ​leaving it in a ​place where it is not ​allowed to be:The ​tax was so ​unpopular that the ​governmentdecided to dump it.Several ​oldcars had been dumped near the ​beach.

measly adjective

UK   US   /ˈmiːz.li/ informal

too ​small in ​size or ​amount, or not enough:a measly ​amount of ​moneya measly little ​present

break even

C1 to have no ​profit or ​loss at the end of a ​businessactivity:After ​paying for ​ourtravelcosts, we barely (= only just)brokeeven.

bid verb (OFFER)

C2 [I or T] (present participle bidding, past tense bid, past participlebid) to ​offer a ​particularamount of ​money for something that is for ​sale and ​compete against other ​people to ​buy it, ​especially at a ​publicsale of ​goods or ​property:She ​knew she couldn’t ​afford it, so she didn’t bid.

bid noun [C] (ATTEMPT)

C2 an ​attempt to ​achieve or get something:Her bid forre-election was ​unsuccessful.The ​company has ​managed to ​fight off a ​hostile takeover bid (= an ​attempt by another ​company to take ​control of it).

infer verb [T]

UK   /ɪnˈfɜːr/  US   /-ˈfɝː/ (-rr-) formal

C2 to ​form an ​opinion or ​guess that something is ​true because of the ​information that you have:What do you infer from her ​refusal?[+ that] I inferred from her ​expression that she ​wanted to ​leave.