I do has am very clever at auxillary verbs

Auxiliary verbs

Definition, explanation, explanatory videos & online quizzes!

Modal verbs writing exercise

Write positive statements, negative statements or questions from these prompts.

Example: It’s my wedding anniversary tomorrow (statement + should)

You should buy your partner a fantastic gift and take them out for a meal.

Now try writing these 10 from the prompts:

  1. “I have never been to Manchester Art Gallery, is it worth going?” (statement + ought to because)
  2. Ask me if I am able to ride a unicycle. (question + can/could)
  3. Ask me if you can have a chair. (question + may)
  4. “What time do I have to come to Mark’s class?” (statement + have to)
  5. “Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?” (statement + will)
  6. “Where should we go tonight?” (suggestion/question + shall)
  7. “Is it necessary to take an umbrella today?” (negative statement + need to)
  8.  Ask me if I have a pencil. (question + could)
  9. “What are you going to have for dinner?” (statement + might)
  10. “Can I drink beer in class?” (negative statement + must)
  11. “Do I need to do lots of homework?” (statement + ought to)
  12. “This work on modal verbs is very difficult.” (Suggestion/question + shall + we + easier)


  1. Yes, you ought to go because there are some interesting paintings there.

2. Can you ride a unicycle?

3. May I have a chair, please?

4. You have to come to Mark’s class at 9.15am.

5. I think it will be cloudy.

6. Shall we go to the cinema?

7. No, you don’t need to because it isn’t raining.

8. Could I borrow your pencil?

9. I might have pizza.

10. You mustn’t drink beer in class.

11. Yes, you ought to do lots of homework.

12. Shall we do something easier?


reliable geek choosy
competitive down-to-earth moody
sociable particular about selfish
sensible punctual tight-fisted
a good laugh pull your weight ambitious
keep yourself to yourself independent determined
quiet hard-working a people-person
talkative cheeky extrovert
organised creative introvert
bossy energetic kind

Writing task: The Ideal Student

Use the 2nd person and describe the ideal student.

Use at least 8 of the adjectives and phrases.

Write at least one statement using:

must, should, don’t need to, ought to, have to, might, shall





Level 2 Group 1 – 8th December 2015 – Level 2 Group 2 9th December 2015 class notes


    1. Vocabulary Blockbusters – revise all the new words we have focused on this term

    2. Discourse markers to express opinion: strongly agree, half agree & disagreeing mildy or strongly. Talking about a variety of topics

    3. Stating opinions about travel quotations using discourse markers

    4. Travel listening – across Europe by train

    5. Travel listening – Jonathan Dimbleby goes back to Africa

    6. Homework – writing about a city you know using senses

Travelling in Europe by train

Jonathan Dimbleby goes back to Africa

Today’s words:

luggage rack

snug adjective

UK   US   /snʌɡ/(snugger, snuggest)

(of a ​person) ​feelingwarm, ​comfortable, and ​protected, or (of a ​place, ​especially a ​smallplace) giving ​feelings of ​warmth, ​comfort, and ​protection:We ​curled up in ​bed, all snug and ​warm, and ​listened to the ​stormoutside.I ​betyourfeet are ​nice and snug in ​yourfur-lined ​boots! fittingclosely:These ​shoes are a ​bit too snug – do you have them in a ​largersize?

snuggle verb [I usually + adv/prep]

UK   US   /ˈsnʌɡ.l̩/

to ​move yourself into a ​warm and ​comfortableposition, ​especially one in which ​yourbody is against another ​person or ​covered by something:The ​children snuggled up to ​theirmother to get ​warm.I was just snuggling down into my ​warm ​bed when my ​phonerang.

landscape noun

UK   US   /ˈlænd.skeɪp/

B1 [C] a ​largearea of ​countryside, ​especially in ​relation to ​itsappearance:a ​rural/​barren landscapeThe landscape is ​dotted with the ​tentsof ​campers and ​hikers.The ​cathedraldominates the landscape for ​miles around. [C or U] a ​view or ​picture of the ​countryside, or the ​art of making such ​pictures:a ​watercolour landscape

voyage      n  

1    a journey, travel, or passage, esp. one to a distant land or by sea or air  
2    an ambitious project . Starting this business has been a voyage of discovery (I’m learning new things every day!)

amenity noun [C usually plural]

UK  /əˈmiː.nɪ.ti/  US   /əˈmen.ə.t̬i/

something, such as a ​swimmingpoolor ​shoppingcentre, that is ​intendedto make ​life more ​pleasant or ​comfortable for the ​people in a ​town, ​hotel, or other ​place:The ​council has some ​sparecash, which it ​proposes to ​spend on publicamenities.basic amenities things ​considered to be ​necessary to ​livecomfortably, such as ​hotwater:The 200-year-old ​jail is ​overcrowded, ​understaffed, and lacking inbasicamenities.

vitality noun [U]

UK   /vaɪˈtæl.ɪ.ti/  US  /-ə.t̬i/ approving

C2 energy and ​strength:According to the ​packet, these ​vitaminpills will ​restorelost vitality.

mania noun [C or U] (STRONG INTEREST)

disapproving a very ​stronginterest in something that ​fills a person’s ​mindor uses up all ​theirtime:So why ​yoursudden mania forexercise?The ​articledescribes the religiousmania that is ​sweeping the US

mania noun [C or U] (MENTAL ILLNESS)

a ​state in which someone ​directs all ​theirattention to one ​particular thing:Van Gogh ​suffered from ​acutepersecution mania.She’s always ​cleaning – it’s like a mania with her. specialized psychology a ​state of ​extremephysical and ​mentalactivity, often ​involving a ​loss of ​judgmentand ​periods of ​euphoria

-mania suffix

UK   US   /-meɪ.ni.ə/

a very ​stronginterest in the ​statedthing, ​especially among a ​largegroup of ​people:Beatle-mania ​sweptBritain in the 1960s.

automated adjective

US   /ˈɔ·t̬əˌmeɪ·t̬ɪd/

made to ​operate by ​machines or ​computers in ​order to ​reduce the ​work done by humans:an automated ​systemautomated ​equipment

reserved adjective (PERSON)

B2 Reserved ​people do not often ​talkabout or show ​theirfeelings or ​thoughts:a ​quiet, reserved womanThe ​English have a ​reputation for being reserved.

reserved adjective (KEPT)

Reserved ​tickets, ​seats, etc. are ​onesthat you have ​arranged to be ​kept for you:May I ​sit here, or is this ​seat/​tablereserved?

intent adjective

UK   US   /ɪnˈtent/

giving all ​yourattention to something:an intent ​stareShe had an intent ​look on her ​face.
be intent on sth/doing sthC2 to be ​determined to do or ​achievesomething:I’ve ​triedpersuading her not to go but she’s intent on it.He ​seems intent on ​upsetting everyone in the ​room!


adverb UK   US   /-li/

The ​childstared intently at her.

intent noun [U]

UK   US   /ɪnˈtent/formal or specialized

C2 the ​fact that you ​want and ​plan to do something:I ​spenthalf the ​morning on the ​phone, which wasn’t really my intent.[+ to infinitive] It was not his intent tohurt anyone.She was ​charged with ​possessingweapons with intent toendangerlife.


necessarily adverb

UK   US   /ˈnes.ə.ser.ɪl.i/

B2 used in ​negatives to ​mean “in every ​case” or “​therefore“:The ​fact that something is ​cheapdoesn’t necessarily ​mean it’s of ​lowquality.You can ​love someone without necessarily ​wanting to ​marry them.That’s not necessarily ​true.

suppose verb (THINK LIKELY)

A2 [T] to ​think that something is ​likely to be ​true:[+ (that)] Dan didn’t ​answer his ​phone, so I suppose (that) he’s ​busy.He ​found it a lot more ​difficult to get a ​job than he supposed it would be.[+ (that)] Do you suppose (that) Gillian will ​marry him?It is ​widely supposed (that) the ​CEO will be ​forced to ​resign.[+ to infinitive] We all supposed him to be ​German, but in ​fact he was ​Swiss.Her new ​book is supposed to be (= ​generallypeoplethink it is) very good. [+ (that)] used to show that you ​thinksomething is ​true, ​although you ​wishthat it were not:I suppose (that) all the ​tickets will be ​sold by now. [+ (that)] used when you are ​annoyed:I suppose (that) you’re going to be late again.I suppose (that) you ​think that’s ​funny. Well, I ​certainly don’t.B1 used to show ​unwillingness to ​agree:“Can I go out ​tonight?” “Oh, I supposeso.”[+ (that)] I don’t ​agree with it, but I suppose (that) it’s for the ​best. [+ (that)] used in making ​politerequests:I don’t suppose (that) you could ​lendme £5 till ​tomorrow?

Level 2 Group 1 – 7th December 2015 – Level 2 Group 2 class notes


  1. Practice listening. Choose AT LEAST 4 videos to watch & listen to from ESLvideo.com advancedHigh-Intermediate Level ESL Video Quizzes (not just Celine Dion videos, please!)

  2. Here are some suggested videos to watch: a) image
    How top Write a Good CV

syoneda: Leonard Cohen: Hallelujah

b) image
Rowan Atkinson – Interview with Elton John; a funny sketch

10 Inventions That Will Make Your Life Easier

TED TALK; Amy Cuddy; Your Body Languages Shapes who you are

Why are there 60 000 homeless in NYC

TED: Lisa Bu: How Books Can Open Your Mind

Honey Bees

Spaghetti Harvest

2. Go onto your online ILP and say how how you think you are doing.

Take a City & Guilds Reading practice exam!

3. Practice grammar for your end of term test! New English File Upper-intermediate Online & Headway Upper-intermediate Online.

3. Go on the Careers website and choose the right job for you. Read it, print it out, keep it and decide what you have to do next. Then make an appointment with Student Support to see the careers advisor.

4. Amina’s Prezi presentation about Green Day:

5. Meetings with Mark

Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 2nd & 3rd December 2015


  1. To learn more about transitional phrases (conjunctions)

  2. Online quiz 1    Quiz 2 Quiz 3 , Quiz 4

  3. Mixed grammar questions

  4. Work in teams to produce ideas for the speaking exam

  5. Use a writing template to write draft presentations to share with the class

  6. no student presentation today, so instead we’ll watch Janine Shepherd’s presentation and answer some questions  

  7. Bola’s presentation about Nigerian food

In the exam you will be giving a formal presentation, consequently you will need to:

Use Level 2 vocabulary and formal language

Have ideas, quotes, statistics and anecdotes about your topic

Structure your presentation in a logical way and be able to see different points of view

Use transitional phrases to link your ideas from introduction through to your balanced conclusion


today’s words:

strangely enough

B2 used to ​remark that something is ​surprising but ​true:Strangely enough, when it came to the ​test I ​actuallyfeltpretty​ relaxed.

contrary noun [S] (the pronunciation of this is very controversial. The students say I can’t say it correctly!)

UK   /ˈkɒn.trə.ri/  US   /ˈkɑːn.tre-/ formal

the contrary the ​opposite:I was ​worried that it might be too hard for me but it ​turned out the contrary was ​true.on the contraryB2 used to show that you ​think or ​feel the ​opposite of what has just been ​stated:“I ​thought you said the ​film was ​exciting?” “On the contrary, I ​nearlyfellasleephalf way through it!”to the contraryC1 saying or ​showing the ​opposite:For a ​longtime it was ​thought to be a ​harmlesssubstance, but we now have proof/​evidence to the contrary.

presumably adverb

UK   /prɪˈzjuː.mə.bli/  US   /-ˈzuː-/

B2 used to say what you ​think is the ​likelysituation:They can presumably ​afford to ​buy a ​biggerapartment.Presumably he just ​forgot to ​send the ​letter.

likelihood noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈlaɪ.kli.hʊd/

C2 the ​chance that something will ​happen:This ​latestdisputegreatlyincreases the likelihood of a ​strike.[+ that] There is every likelihood that more ​jobs will be ​lostlaterthis ​year.There is little likelihood now thatinterestrates will come down ​further.in all likelihoodC2 almostcertainly:In all likelihood everything will go to ​plan.

see previous days work on transitional phrases 🙂

Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 1st December 2015

  1. Transitional phrases

  2. Work in teams to produce ideas for the speaking exam

  3. Use a writing template to write draft presentations to share with the class

  4. Ephriem’s & Inga’s presentations

  5. Gender equality in the UK & other countries – statistics

Discourse Markers in speech

Transitional phrases videos

Ephriem’s presentation: What is nuclear fusion?

Inga’s presentation: The Strangest “Sports” In The World prezi

Today’s words:

mind you

a phrase introducing something that should be taken into consideration. He’s very well dressed, but mind you, he’s gotplenty of money to buy clothes. Lisa is unfriendly to me, but mind you, she’s never very nice to anyone.

furthermore adverb

UK   /ˌfɜː.ðəˈmɔːr/  US   /ˈfɝː.ðɚ.mɔːr/ formal

B2 in ​addition; more ​importantly:The ​house is ​beautiful. Furthermore, it’s in a ​greatlocation.

as for

considering or ​speaking about:As for the ​money, we’ll ​talk about that ​later.

optimistic adjective

UK   /ˌɒp.tɪˈmɪs.tɪk/  US   /ˌɑːp.tə-/

B2 hoping or ​believing that good things will ​happen in the ​future:She is optimistic about her ​chances of ​winning a ​goldmedal.

sequencing noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈsiː.kwən.sɪŋ/

the ​process of ​combining things in a ​particularorder, or ​discovering the ​order in which they are ​combined:A ​commonsign of ​dyslexia is that the sequencing of ​letters when ​spelling words may be ​incorrect.

whereas conjunction

UK   /weərˈæz/  US   /werˈæz/

B2 compared with the ​fact that; but:He must be about 60, whereas his ​wifelooks about 30.You ​eat a ​hugeplate of ​food for ​lunch, whereas I have just a ​sandwich.

consequently adverb

UK   /ˈkɒn.sɪ.kwənt.li/  US   /ˈkɑːn-/

B2 as a ​result:I ​spent most of my ​money in the first ​week and consequently had very little to ​eat by the end of the ​holiday.

moreover adverb

UK   /ˌmɔːˈrəʊ.vər/  US   /ˌmɔːrˈoʊ.vɚ/ formal

B2 (used to ​addinformation) also and more ​importantly:The ​wholereport is ​badly written. Moreover, it’s ​inaccurate.

summarize verb [I or T]

(UK usually summarise) UK   /ˈsʌm.ər.aɪz/  US   /-ə.raɪz/

C1 to ​express the most ​importantfacts or ​ideas about something or someone in a ​short and ​clearform:I’ll just summarize the ​mainpoints of the ​argument in a few words.To summarize, we ​believe the ​company cannot ​continue in ​itspresentform.

initially adverb

UK   US   /ɪˈnɪʃ.əl.i/

B2 at the ​beginning:Initially, most ​peopleapproved of the new ​plan.The ​damage was ​far more ​serious than initially ​believed.

Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 26rd November 2015



  1. Phrasal verbs with out + games
  2. Advertising and International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
    25 November
  3. “You are the teacher” give speaking feedback to your peers.

Today’s words:

Jenny had a new haircut, everyone said it looked great, apart from Bill he said he didn’t think it was very original but I think he’s jealous because he’s bald and he’s just being petty.

The manager keeps criticising my driving skills. He says I don’t go fast enough but I do all my work and turn up on time. He’s just being petty.









Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 25rd November 2015


  1. Learn more about phrasal verbs

  2. play phrasal verbs naughts and crosses

  3. play online phrasal verb games: http://www.stuff.co.uk/phrasal.htmhttp://a4esl.org/q/j/ck/fb-phrasalverbs.html

  4. Phrasal verbs prezi

  5. Today’s topic – Social media & the traditional media

  6. Presentation about Nigeria by Francis

Nigerian food & plantain:


Today’s words:

hoax noun [C]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

a ​plan to ​deceive someone, such as ​telling the ​police there is a ​bombsomewhere when there is not one, or a ​trick:The ​bombthreatturned out to be a hoax.He’d made a hoax callclaiming to be the ​president.

hoax verb [T]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

Francis asks, why is ‘everyone’ a singular noun?

everybody / everyone / everything

It is true that everybody and everyone refers to everybody and everyone in a group of people and everything refers to everything ina group of things. Even so, they are still perceived individually or as a totality, so the singular verb form is still maintained:

  • Is everybody happy with that? Does everyone understand my position?
  • Everything she owns has been stolen.

Everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere are indefinite pronouns.

We use them to refer to a total number of people, things and places. We write them as one word:

His name was Henry but everyone called him Harry.

All your clothes are clean. I washed everything yesterday.

The sand got everywhere, into eyes, hair, tents, cups of tea, camera lenses.

We use everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere with singular verbs:

Everybody knows the truth.

At night, with the lights shining on the water, everything looks different.

We couldn’t get a seat. Everywhere was so crowded.

aggravate verb [T] (MAKE WORSE)

to make a ​badsituationworse:Attempts to ​restrictparking in the ​citycentre have ​furtheraggravated the ​problem of ​trafficcongestion. to make a ​diseaseworse:The ​treatment only aggravated the ​condition.

aggravate verb [T] (ANNOY)

informal to ​annoy someone:Stop aggravating me, will you!

escalate verb [I or T]

UK   US   /ˈes.kə.leɪt/

to ​become or make something ​becomegreater or more ​serious:His ​financialproblems escalated after he ​becameunemployed.The ​decision to escalate UN ​involvement has been made in the ​hopes of a ​swift end to the ​hostilities.The escalating ​rate of ​inflation will ​almostcertainlybring escalating ​prices.

exaggerate verb [I or T]

UK   /ɪɡˈzædʒ.ə.reɪt/  US   /-ɚ.eɪt/

C1 to make something ​seemlarger, more ​important, ​better, or ​worse than it really is:The ​threat of ​attack has been greatly exaggerated.Don’t exaggerate – it wasn’t that ​expensive.I’m not exaggerating – it was the ​worstmeal I’ve ​evereaten in my ​life.

anonymous adjective

UK   /əˈnɒn.ɪ.məs/  US   /-ˈnɑː.nə-/

C2 made or done by someone whose ​name is not ​known or not made ​public:The ​money was ​donated by an anonymous benefactor.Police said an anonymous callerwarned that a ​bomb was about to go off.An ​attempt to ​implant an ​embryo using an ​egg from an anonymous woman donor was ​unsuccessful.He ​received an anonymous letterthreatening to ​disclosedetails of his ​affair if he didn’t ​pay the ​money.For ​reasons of ​personalsafety, the ​informantwishes to remainanonymous.

reliable adjective

UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪə.bl̩/

B1 Someone or something that is reliable can be ​trusted or ​believed because he, she, or it ​works or ​behaves well in the way you ​expect:Is ​yourwatch reliable?reliable ​informationGideon is very reliable – if he says he’ll do something, he’ll do it.

rely on/upon sb/sth

phrasal verb with rely UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪ/ verb

B2 to need a ​particular thing or the ​help and ​support of someone or something in ​order to ​continue, to ​workcorrectly, or to ​succeed:[+ -ing verb] The ​success of this ​project relies on everyone makingan ​effort.I rely on you for good ​advice.[+ to infinitive] I’m relying on the ​garage tofix the ​car by ​tomorrow.B2 to ​trust someone or something or to ​expect him, her, or it to ​behave in a ​particular way:British ​weather can never be relied on – it’s always ​changing.[+ -ing verb] Don’t rely on ​finding me here when you get back (= I might have gone).

fictional adjective

UK   US   /ˈfɪk.ʃən.əl/

C2 imaginary:a fictional ​storyfictional ​characters

peer verb [I usually + adv/prep]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

C2 to ​lookcarefully or with ​difficulty:When no one ​answered the ​door, she peered through the ​windowto ​see if anyone was there.The ​driver was peering into the ​distancetrying to ​read the ​roadsign.

More examples

peer noun [C]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

peer noun [C] (EQUAL)

C1 a ​person who is the same ​age or has the same ​socialpositionor the same ​abilities as other ​people in a ​group:Do you ​think it’s ​true that ​teenagegirls are less ​self-confident than ​theirmale peers?He wasn’t a ​greatscholar, but as a ​teacher he had few peers (= not as many ​people had the same ​ability as him).

Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 23rd November 2015

  • Vocabulary revision naughts & crosses

  • Today’s topic – Social media & the traditional media

  • We’re going to look through some newspapers and consider the differences

  • Used to, To be used to, could get used to – find someone who

  • 3 different speakers – can you predict the topics?

  • Aimee Mullins (03.18 – 05.34)

  • Nadia Al-Sakkaf (06.42 – 12.15) 

  • Geena Rocero (00.12 – 04.31)

Today’s words:

certainly adverb

UK   /ˈsɜː.tən.li/  US   /ˈsɝː-/

certainly adverb (IN NO DOUBT)

A2 used to ​replycompletely or to ​emphasize something and show that there is no ​doubt about it:She certainly had a ​friend called ​Mark, but I don’t ​know whether he was her ​boyfriend.“This is ​rather a ​difficultquestion.” “Yes, it’s certainly not ​easy.”“Do you ​think more ​money should be given to ​education?” “Certainly!”“Had you ​forgotten about ​ouranniversary?” “Certainly not! I’ve ​reserved a ​table at Michel’s ​restaurant for this ​evening.”A2 used when ​agreeing or ​disagreeingstrongly to a ​request:“Could you ​lend me £10?” “Certainly.”“Did you take any ​money out of my ​purse?” “Certainly not!”

verify verb [T]

UK   US   /ˈver.ɪ.faɪ/

C1 to ​prove that something ​exists or is ​true, or to make ​certainthat something is ​correct:Are you ​able to verify ​youraccount/​allegation/​report/​theory?These ​numbers are ​surprisingly high and they’ll have to be verified.[+ (that)] Under interrogation, she verified (that) the ​tapes were ​authentic.

exclusive adjective (ONLY FOR SOME)

C1 limited to only one ​person or ​group of ​people:This ​room is for the exclusive use of ​guests.an exclusive interviewB2 expensive and only for ​people who are ​rich or of a high ​socialclass:an exclusive ​privatecluban exclusive ​part of ​town