MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson – PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE – USING AT, IN, ON

Here is another video for your lockdown learning.

Below the exercises is the Google Doc transcript from today’s 5-minute grammar lesson. Extra teacher talk from the video not included!

Prepositions of place – IN, ON and AT. Small words = big problems.

But no more. Spend 5 minutes watching this and never make a mistake again! Maybe…

Here are your online exercises:

  1. https://test-english.com/grammar-points/a1/at-in-on-prepositions-of-place/
  2. https://www.grammarbank.com/prepositions-exercise.html
  3. https://esl.writingexercises.co.uk/prepositions1.php
  4. https://agendaweb.org/grammar/prepositions-exercises.html

Today’s video Google Doc transcript

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson. 

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE – USING AT, IN, ON for DIFFERENT PLACES.

Today we’re going to be covering:

  1.   Prepositions of place basics
  2. Talking to Mark on the phone
  3. When to use IN.
  4. When to use ON.
  5. When to use AT.
  6. In hospital / at the hospital
  7.  On the bus? In a car?
  8. WATCH THIS TWICE IF IT’S TOO FAST. I’VE ONLY GOT 5 MINUTES!!!
  9. The first thing to say is: I’m not going to try to explain BETWEEN and NEXT TO by typing and speaking.

I would have to do it like this:

Where is the potato?

Carrot POTATO spinach

Yes, potato is BETWEEN carrot and spinach.

Where is the potato now?

Brocolli POTATO

Yes, potato is next to broccoli – or potato is ON THE RIGHT OF broccoli. 

No, no, no, no. Today we’re going to look at REAL LIFE prepositions that we use for places.

We’re going to make it EASY.

EASY PEASY PUDDING AND PIE as I like to say. 

After watching this video you will never get IN, AT, ON confused again. Hopefully.

  1. Imagine you are talking to me on the phone. You are lost. You are worried. You need me to give you a lift. Then your phone rings. I’m calling you, “Hi, mate. I’m waiting at the cafe.  I thought we were going for a coffee and some cake! Hurry up! Where are you?”

You need to tell me where you are so I can come and find you.

Are you ON a mountain?

Are you IN a mountain?

Are you AT a mountain?

These PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE are very little words but VERY IMPORTANT if I am going to come and find you!

In this case, they mean EXACTLY THE SAME as when we use BASIC prepositions of place.

‘Hi, Mark. I’m on the mountain.’ I AM ON TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN.

‘Hi, Mark. I’m in the mountain.’ I AM INSIDE THE MOUNTAIN. In a cave?

‘Hi, Mark. I’m at the mountain.’ I AM STANDING AT OR RIGHT NEXT TO THE MOUNTAIN.

EASY PEASY LEMON SQUEEZY!

In general, we use IN for BIG places, ON for smaller and AT when we want to be very specific.

  1. IN = we use this when you are IN somewhere BIG or really INSIDE somewhere:
  1. INSIDE – My wallet is in my bag. My phone is in my pocket. Oh! No! It isn’t! I left my phone in the classroom.
  2. You’re inside a room – ‘I’m in the bedroom.’ You’re in a lift.
  3. A building – ‘I’m in a hotel.’ ‘I’m in the Trafford Centre.’ This gets confusing because we also say AT. (more in a minute!) In this case, you’re INSIDE these buildings. ‘Sorry, I can’t speak, I’m in class!’
  4. A big space. In a field. In a park. In space? ‘I’m in a rocket. Look up in the sky. I’m in space! I’m near the moon. I’m going to Mars.’
  5. A city, town or neighbourhood. ‘I’m in New York.’ I’m in Shiraz. I’m in Cheetham Hill. Is it a big place? Is it a small place? Where IN the world are you? Are you in the countryside or are you in a big city?
  6. Transport where you are INSIDE: He’s in a taxi. She’s in her car. They’re in a plane / a helicopter / a boat 
  7. BUT NOT A BUS!!!!!

4. ON = on as a basic proposition means ABOVE + TOUCHING. The cat is on the table. The elephant is on the car. Or ON TOP of the car. An elephant can’t get IN a car, unless it’s a very big car. 

But Mark, we don’t care about ELEPHANTS! Come on, hurry up!

  1. Ok, elephants. ‘I’m riding ON an elephant.’ It’s a type of transport you get ON. You’re on top of this big animal. You’re ON a camel. On a horse. You don’t want to be INSIDE a horse. It has to be on.
  2. All things you ride. So you ride a donkey. You ride a bike. You don’t drive a motorbike – you ride it. Put one leg over and get ON. On a skateboard, on a scooter.
  3. ON A BUS! You want rules but just remember this one. THIS IS THE CRAZY ONE! The bosses of the English language say it’s ON  because you step ONTO a bus,  or because 100 years ago a bus didn’t have a roof. So you were on top of it. 
  4. You also step onto a PLANE, a TRAIN, a BOAT. So you can say, ‘I’m on the tram.’ Or you can say, ‘I’m in the tram.’ You get ON it. You sit IN it. Both are fine. A car you get in. Don’t say, ‘I’m on my car.’ People will think you are sitting on the roof. Weird. Dangerous!
  5. Roads. You can be on a road. ‘I’m on Langworthy Road. The cafe is on the right.’

5. AT = an exact position or a place.

  1. An exact position. Where are you on the road? I’m AT the traffic lights. Where are you in the supermarket? I’m AT the checkouts. I’m AT the back of the cafe. I’m AT the bar. I’m AT the playground in the park.
  2. At home. At work. At college. Here you’re saying you’re AT a place. It doesn’t matter if you’re in the bedroom, in the garden or standing ON the roof. The where you are is AT HOME. It’s the same at work, you can be inside or outside the building but you are AT WORK. At the beach.
  3. At for a specific location. At 38 Dickenson Road, at the Eiffel Tower. I am sitting at my desk. At = right next to it. At the bus stop not ON the bus stop or IN the bus stop.
  4.  Hospital. Now this one is a little confusing. You are IN hospital when you’re IN a bed. You’re at the hospital when you are visiting or working there. They mean very different things!

Bye-bye!

MarkESOL xxx

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson – GERUNDS and INFINITIVES

Here is another video for your lockdown learning.

Below the exercises is the Google Doc transcript from the 5-minute grammar lesson. Extra teacher talk from the video not included!

Gerunds and Infinitives. What are these? Why do we need to use them? Well, in reality if you have some knowledge of English, you will already be using them. You might get them wrong – but it doesn’t matter. Being brave and using new language is the key to learning.

And yes, I’m well aware that this 5 minute grammar lesson doesn’t cover everything. It’s a 5 minute introduction. In a reading exam you may be asked to identify a gerund or an infinitive, so this video can help there. You will need to do more work to know more about gerunds and infinitives, but hopefully I can help you in my next video on the subject.

Here are your online exercises:

  1. https://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/index.htm

2. https://agendaweb.org/verbs/infinitive_gerund-exercises.html

Today’s video Google Doc transcript

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson. 

Using INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS.

Today we’re going to be covering:

  1.   What is an INFINITIVE?
  2. What on earth is a GERUND????
  3. Why do I need to know about these INFINITIVES and GERUNDS?
  4. Oh boy … rules. So many English language rules. Let’s just lie down and cry. It’s too difficult, Mark!!!!
  5. Sleep. On another day we’ll get into more detail. Maybe. If we can be bothered…

Righto. Let’s be brave and start with the easy stuff.

INFINITIVES or INFINITIVE VERBS

I’ll give you a moment while you tell me … yeah, that’s right. The small basic form of the verb: go, live, have, want, play, sleep. With no ings, no es on the end no past participle nonsense. Simple.

Remember when we’re talking about recipes or mobile phone instructions  – instructional texts:

Open the packet.

You Pour in the flour.

Press the red button on the side.

Or orders:

Go now!

Listen!

Sit down!

Teachers love an infinitive verb. 

Shut up! (A lovely phrasal verb with up)

Now hold that thought while we jump into the world of …

GERUNDS

“A word ending in “-ing” that is made from a verb and is used like a noun.” (Cambridge Free English Dictionary)

“I always love your cooking, dear.”

“He enjoys playing video games.”

Any verb tense can be used.

“As a child I used to love living in the countryside.” 

“Many students aren’t doing enough reading.”

RULES, RULES, RULES – just give me rules, Mark! I need em!

So, when and why do we sometimes use a gerund and other times an infinitive?

Hey, I’ve got 5 minutes here.

Gerunds and infinitives can be the subject or the complement of a sentence.

Gerund subject of a sentence

Eating is fun. (Noun + verb + adjective).

Dancing is healthy.

Smiling is nice.

Smoking is unhealthy.

DON’T CONFUSE GERUNDS WITH THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS = THAT’S A ROOKIE ERROR! Where’s the verb to be for a start?

Infinitive as a subject of a sentence

These sound super intelligent. They look like things that people share on Instagram.

To eat healthily is to live a healthy life.

Learn something new every day.

Sing like no one is listening.

Love like you’ve never been hurt.

Dance like nobody’s watching,

and live like it’s heaven on earth.

To be or not to be? That is the question.

Study like your teacher is watching.

So gerunds sound informal, non-pretentious and friendly. If in doubt – use a gerund. In normal English gerunds are used much more than infinitives.

BIG HOWEVER …

It all depends on the verb in the sentence. Sometimes you have a choice. Sometimes you don’t. Here both forms work:

I love to sing.

I love singing.

NO PROBLEMS. Apart from my singing.

However, if we’re using FINISH – it has to be a gerund after it.

I’ve finished cleaning.

She won’t finish cooking for ages.

We don’t say FINISH + an INFINITIVE

Please finish to write. The exam is over.

You must finish writing now! 

Yeah, rules. Rules and rules.

He enjoys relaxing. “Enjoy” needs a gerund. 

BUT YOU KNOW THAT, RIGHT?

We came to give you a present.

“Come” wants an infinitive.

EASY

PEASY

LEMON

SQUEEZY

Oh yeah, some rules about nouns and pronouns, you want them too?

Info about gerunds and prepositions? Hmmm…

No time! Another time!?

Verbs that need GERUNDS

stopfinishimagineavoidstop
Give upkeepvisither friendlater

Verbs that need INFINITIVES

needprepareswearhopewould like
offeraffordpromisedeciderefuse

Bye-bye!

MarkESOL xxx

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson – Using SHALL and SHAN’T for the future

Here is another video for your lockdown learning.

Below the exercises is the Google Doc transcript from the 5-minute grammar lesson. Extra teacher talk from the video not included!

Shall & shan’t. Have you ever used this? It’s good for impressing people, especially if you ever meet a prince or a princess at a ball.

ball noun (DANCE)

[ C ]large formal occasion where people dance

Here are your online exercises:

  1. https://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-96373.php

2. https://agendaweb.org/exercises/verbs/modals/shall-will

Today’s video Google Doc transcript

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson. 

Using SHALL and SHAN’T for the future.

Today we’re going to be covering:

  1.   Who uses SHALL?
  2. When do we use SHALL and SHAN’T?
  3. Making suggestions
  4. Volunteering and offering
  5. Promises
  6. General future statements
  7.  How to make statements
  8. How to make negative statements
  9. Confirming with a question
  10. Question tags

Gosh! That’s loads of things. I thought SHALL was going to be a quick 3 minute one! Better get going …

  1. Who uses SHALL? Why, you and I, dear boy!

It’s terribly FORMAL. It’s posh. It’s quite cool because not many people use it.

PRO TIP: If you meet the Queen or a random prince. Use SHALL.

It’s particularly useful if you want to dance with a princess:

“Shall we dance?”

“Shall we not leave before my coach turns into a pumpkin?”

“Yes, I think we probably shall.”

It’s really good for suggestions, for question tags and definite, slightly POSH statements about the future.

“I shall tell you more about this in a moment, dear lady!”

“So, shall we begin?”

“Yes, sir, we shall.”

Making suggestions

Almost always with I and we. You use it in answer to questions. Not as a definite answer but as a HOW ABOUT? MAYBE WE COULD? 

Yeah, it’s a modal verb thing…

It can even be a passive-aggressive way of getting someone to do what you want without ordering them to do it.

“What do you want to do this evening?”

“Shall we go into town? Or would you rather go to the gym?” You’re just saying – hey, here’s an idea! 

Usually, here’s my VERY GOOD opinion. You can disagree, but you will be wrong!

“Shall we get a takeaway tonight? Shall we go home, I’m really tired.”

Volunteering and offering

Like our friends “Would you like… ?” or “I’ll help.” “We’ll give you a lift.”

You’re saying you shall do something. It’s your idea but you can also volunteer your friends or family. “I’ll help you!” “We shall help you.” – Although that’s not so common. Don’t worry about that.

Promises

Like will. Saying you shall do something – is a promise. You are giving your word. “I shall be here at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning.” This is a statement of fact and feels much stronger than will.

General future statements

I shall go later.

DON’T WORRY ABOUT THESE. CONCENTRATE ON = promises, suggestions and question tags!

Question tags

“I’ll explain, shall I?”

“I’ll lend you my umbrella, shall I?”

It’s a backwards question where you think you know the answer – YES or NO.

“We’ll lend you some money, shall we?”

Ummm, yes, please! I shall need it!

Statements with – SHALL

subjectshallInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
IshalldoMy homeworksoon
she/he/itshallvisither friendlater
weshallstudyin collegeIn the summer
youshalltryTo exercise in the parkThis afternoon
theyshallgoon a dietIn the summer

Yeah, no one uses she, you or they with shall. And who says ‘shan’t’ and ‘I shall not’?

People in books written in the 18th century mainly.

“I shan’t enjoy this party, mama. The people are perfectly ghastly!”

Negative statements with – SHAN’T/SHALL NOT

subjectShan’t/shall notInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
IShall notdrinkany alcoholtonight!
He Shall notbeallowedIn college!
weshan’tattendthe meetingOn Wednesday
youShall notplaywith that boyever again!
theyShall not eatMcDonald’s

Suggestions and questions with – SHALL

Question wordwillsubjectInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
WhenshallItakeThe tablets?
WhenshallIarrive?
ShallwewatchNetflixtonight?
HowshallweStudy Englishthis term?
What timeshallwemeet?How about8.30?
Shallwe alllearn English at homenow?

So! Give shall a whirl. Give it a try.

Particularly if you want to impress with your formality and poshness!

“I shall help you.”

“Shall we go for a walk?”

Bye bye!

MarkESOL xxx

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson – Using Will & Won’t for the future

ESOL Lockdown Learning – will & won’t

Here are some more practice exercises for your English language lockdown learning.

Below the exercises is the Google Doc transcript from the 5-minute grammar lesson. Extra teacher talk from the video not included!

Future Simple

The simple future has two forms:  will and be going to

Generally we use will for promises and instant decisions.

We use be going to for future plans or when we are 100% certain.

Negatives and Questions

To make the negatives, use won’t (will not) or isn’t/aren’t going to

To make the questions, move one word forward from the statement to make a question: He is going to bed. -> Is he going to bed? You will marry me. -> Will you marry me?

EXTRA VIDEO LESSONS:


Today’s video Google Doc transcript

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson. 

Using WILL and WON’T for the future.

Today we’re going to be covering:

  1.   What’s the difference between ‘will’ and ‘going to’ for the future?
  2. When do we use WILL and WON’T?
  3. Making offers
  4. A promise
  5. Making predictions
  6. How to make statements
  7. How to make negative statements
  8. Making questions
  1. What’s the difference between ‘will’ and ‘going to’ for the future?

The first thing to say is – DON’T WORRY. BRITISH PEOPLE DON’T CARE ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE! They really don’t. Examiners care. English teachers care, and if you want to have perfect fluent English – you should care too!

Do you remember when we use going to for the future? 

That’s right! We use GOING TO + infinitive verb = for decisions you have made before and things you are certain about:

“I’m going to phone my friend in a minute because she is going to visit me tomorrow.”

So we don’t say:

“She will visit me tomorrow.” Going to – for plans.

People will understand this statement, but it shows that you don’t understand the rules.

3. When do we use WILL and WON’T?

  1. For sudden decisions. Like in a restaurant when the waiter asks you want you would like, “Hmmm, I think I will have the chicken.” You decide instantly. In a click of your fingers. Hmmm, chicken or fish, hmmm? Yes! I will have chicken. Although, we almost always use the short version. I’LL – not the full version I WILL.
  2. “Do you want a glass of wine?”

“No, I won’t, I’m going to drive home.” It’s the same with negative statements – we always say I WON’T – hardly ever I WILL NOT.

  • Making offers – “I’ll give you a lift home in my car.”
  • A promise – “I’ll do my homework next week.” Hmmm? Really? “I’ll give you the money next week.” Do you believe that? Get evidence!
  • Making predictions – when you are guessing or thinking, “I think she will be late! She won’t wake up in time! We’ll miss the bus!” “Ahmed will pass the exam.” “Mark will give us homework again! I’m sure!” 

Statements with – WILL

subjectwillInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
IwilldoMy homeworksoon
she/he/itwillvisither friendlater
wewillstudyin collegeIn June
youwilltryTo exercise in the parkThis afternoon
theywillgoon a dietIn the summer

We also say, I think – because we’re not sure. I think we will have a great time tonight. 

Negative statements with – WON’T

subjectwon’tInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
Iwon’tdrinkany alcoholtonight!
she/he/itwon’ttalkher friendever again!
wewon’tbe meetingOn Wednesday
youwon’texerciseUnless I do it with you!
theywon’teatvegetables

We also say, I don’t think + will for negative:

I don’t think he will give us any money!

I don’t think I will go to the party tonight.

Questions with – WILL

Question wordwillsubjectInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
WhenwillItakeMy exam?
Willshe/hevisitustomorrow?
Willitrainlater?
HowwillweStudy Englishthis term?
WherewillyouexerciseThis afternoon?
WhatwilltheydoIn the summer?
  • Another way of saying the negative is “I don’t think he’ll remember my birthday.” This is the same as WON’T. 
  • Shall! You can also use SHALL:

“I shall help you.”

“Shall we go for a walk?”

But that is another 5 minutes!

Bye bye!

MarkESOL xxx

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson – Using Going to for the future

MarkESOL trying to teach ‘going to’ for future in 5 minutes – Lockdown Learning!?

Here are some online exercises for your English language lockdown learning.

Below the exercises is the Google Doc transcript from the 5-minute grammar lesson. Extra teacher talk from the video not included!

Online exercises: going to for future:

Today’s video Google Doc transcript

MarkESOL 5 minute grammar lesson. 

Using Going to for the future.

Today we’re going to be covering:

  1.   Times and dates in the future
  2. When do we use going to?
  3. Making statements
  4. Making negative statements
  5. Making questions
  6. Short answers

Times in the future

This afternoon, this evening. Tomorrow morning. Tonight. ON Sunday. Saturday, next Monday. Next week.

Next month, next year. Or in June. In 2024. Next year. Or in 5 years. In 2 weeks.  In a hundred years time. In a few minutes. later.

In the future.

There are lots of different verbs and ways we can talk about the future in English. English is complicated and difficult! Arggggghhhh!

So how do we use going to make sentences or statements?

When we’re sure of what is going to happen. Plans. Things that we are sure are going to happen.

If I see a big grey cloud, I can say, “It’s going to rain.” I have evidence. I’ve seen the cloud.

I am going to eat in 10 minutes.

I’m not going to go shopping today. 

I’m going to exercise in the park later.

Statements with – going to

subjectTo begoing toInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
Iamgoing toeattoastsoon
she/he/itisgoing tovisither friendtomorrow
wearegoing toStudy EnglishOn Wednesday
youaregoing toexercisein the parkThis afternoon
theyaregoing togoto PortugalIn the summer

Negative statements with – going to

subjectTo benegativegoing toInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
Iamnotgoing toeattoastsoon
she/he/itisnotgoing tovisither friendtomorrow
wearenotgoing toStudy EnglishOn Wednesday
youarenotgoing toexerciseiIn the parkThis afternoon
theyarenotgoing togoto PortugalIn the summer

Questions with – going to

Question wordTo besubjectgoing toInfinitive verb Extra informationwhen
AmIgoing toeattoastsoon?
Isshe/he/itgoing tovisither friendtomorrow?
Arewegoing toStudy EnglishOn Wednesday?
Areyougoing toexercisein the parkThis afternoon?
Aretheygoing togoto PortugalIn the summer?

Short answers with going to

Q: Are you going to do your homework?

A: Yes, I am.

Q: Is this going to be fun?

A: No, it’s not.

Q: Is this going to happen again?

A: Yes, it is.

Things to remember!

Use the verb to be.

Use going to for things that are certain. That are going to happen.

Use the infinitive form of the verb after going to. That’s really important.

Bye bye bye!!!

MarkESOL

I do has am very clever at auxillary verbs

Auxiliary verbs

Definition, explanation, explanatory videos & online quizzes!

A process showing how an iPhone is charged by an onion – using the passive voice

 

Play this video game in ‘Casino Mode’ for best results. Good luck!

https://en.islcollective.com/video-lessons/embed/51244

Learn more here:

https://school.eckovation.com/active-and-passive-voice/

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/active-and-passive-voice

Quizzes to test your knowledge of Active and Passive Voice

https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/active_or_passive2.htm

http://a4esl.org/q/h/vm/active-passive.html

https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/passive-voice-quiz.htm

https://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=passive-voice-transformation

https://www.learnenglishfeelgood.com/esl-passive-voice-exercise2.html

https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm

http://www.learnenglish-online.com/grammar/tests/passive.html

https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/complex_tests/passive1/index.php

https://en.islcollective.com/video-lessons/embed/776 

Play this game in ‘Casino Mode’ or try ‘Interactive Mode’.

Don’t be confused by the dictionary definitions for …

Modal verbs writing exercise

Write positive statements, negative statements or questions from these prompts.

Example: It’s my wedding anniversary tomorrow (statement + should)

You should buy your partner a fantastic gift and take them out for a meal.

Now try writing these 10 from the prompts:

  1. “I have never been to Manchester Art Gallery, is it worth going?” (statement + ought to because)
  2. Ask me if I am able to ride a unicycle. (question + can/could)
  3. Ask me if you can have a chair. (question + may)
  4. “What time do I have to come to Mark’s class?” (statement + have to)
  5. “Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?” (statement + will)
  6. “Where should we go tonight?” (suggestion/question + shall)
  7. “Is it necessary to take an umbrella today?” (negative statement + need to)
  8.  Ask me if I have a pencil. (question + could)
  9. “What are you going to have for dinner?” (statement + might)
  10. “Can I drink beer in class?” (negative statement + must)
  11. “Do I need to do lots of homework?” (statement + ought to)
  12. “This work on modal verbs is very difficult.” (Suggestion/question + shall + we + easier)

POSSIBLE ANSWERS

  1. Yes, you ought to go because there are some interesting paintings there.

2. Can you ride a unicycle?

3. May I have a chair, please?

4. You have to come to Mark’s class at 9.15am.

5. I think it will be cloudy.

6. Shall we go to the cinema?

7. No, you don’t need to because it isn’t raining.

8. Could I borrow your pencil?

9. I might have pizza.

10. You mustn’t drink beer in class.

11. Yes, you ought to do lots of homework.

12. Shall we do something easier?

THIS WEEK’S PERSONALITY ADJECTIVES & PHRASES

reliable geek choosy
competitive down-to-earth moody
sociable particular about selfish
sensible punctual tight-fisted
a good laugh pull your weight ambitious
keep yourself to yourself independent determined
quiet hard-working a people-person
talkative cheeky extrovert
organised creative introvert
bossy energetic kind

Writing task: The Ideal Student

Use the 2nd person and describe the ideal student.

Use at least 8 of the adjectives and phrases.

Write at least one statement using:

must, should, don’t need to, ought to, have to, might, shall

 

 

 

 

You ought to learn how to use modals correctly

Now complete this quiz.

More Online exercises below

Conjunctions and connectors – Level 2 – class notes

Objectives
1. Review quiz

2. Homework check – text meaning

3. Reading about linear and natural time

4. Conjunctions matching exercise

5. Conjunctions kahoots!

What is a discourse marker in English?
Discourse markers are words and phrases used in speaking and writing to ‘signpost’ discourse. Discourse markers do this by showing turns, joining ideas together, showing attitude, and generally controlling communication. Some people regard discourse markers as a feature of spoken language only.

adjective – English is important. Coming to class on time is important.

adverb – People shouldn’t stay on their phones for too long, more importantly young people shouldn’t even have phones. Ever!

more & most = comparative + superlative

I like ice cream, indeed it’s my favourite food.

British weather is not always amazing, in the case of the recent floods many people’s houses have been ruined.

I like ice cream, similarly I like cake.

I like ice cream, conversely I don’t like cake.

contrasting images:

Random other topics!

Winter storm names in the UK

2015–16 Abigail Barney Clodagh Desmond Eva Frank Gertrude Henry Imogen Jake Katie
Lawrence Mary Nigel Orla Phil Rhonda Steve Tegan Vernon Wendy

A film about drugs. Who are the intended audience?Is the primary purpose of this film informative or persuasive?

Today’s words:

conversely adverb [not gradable]

from a different and opposite way of looking at this:He was regarded either as too imitative to be considered originalor, conversely, as being overly original.

sarcasm noun [U]

the use of remarks that clearly mean the opposite of what they say, made in order to hurt someone’s feelings or to criticize something in a humorous way:“You have been working hard,” he said with heavy sarcasm, as he looked at the empty page.

Compare