1. Review quiz
2. Homework check – text meaning
3. Reading about linear and natural time
4. Conjunctions matching exercise
5. Conjunctions kahoots!
What is a discourse marker in English?
Discourse markers are words and phrases used in speaking and writing to ‘signpost’ discourse. Discourse markers do this by showing turns, joining ideas together, showing attitude, and generally controlling communication. Some people regard discourse markers as a feature of spoken language only.
adjective – English is important. Coming to class on time is important.
adverb – People shouldn’t stay on their phones for too long, more importantly young people shouldn’t even have phones. Ever!
more & most = comparative + superlative
I like ice cream, indeed it’s my favourite food.
British weather is not always amazing, in the case of the recent floods many people’s houses have been ruined.
I like ice cream, similarly I like cake.
I like ice cream, conversely I don’t like cake.
Random other topics!
Winter storm names in the UK
A film about drugs. Who are the intended audience?Is the primary purpose of this film informative or persuasive?
The difference between the verbs ‘to compare’ and ‘to contrast’ seems to have caused some heated debate. Probably more than it should. I’m not sure why. Perhaps it’s the perenial potato debate. Which do you prefer? Sweet potatoes or old fashioned regular potatoes? Or how about yams? Surely a discussion about potatoes couldn’t cause so much argument, could it?
Let’s look at the meaning of ‘to contrast’ first because it’s easier to understand:
C2 [ I ]If one thing contrasts with another, it is very different from it:
So the potatoes are rounder, and obviously, the sweet potatoes are ummm sweeter. I’m not doing very well here….
Cleveland Health Clinic explain that, “Sweet potatoes provide 400% of your daily requirement of vitamin A. They also have more vitamin C, fewer calories, more fibre and fewer total carbs than white potatoes, despite more sugar. But don’t forget white potatoes — they’re more versatile in cooking and less expensive.“
So that’s the contrast sorted. Fine. We’re happy with that. One is usually white the other is usually orange. Contrast! Easy… So, to compare:
But – we also use ‘to compare’ – to talk about similarities and to decide which thing is better. We can make chips out of potatoes and sweet potatoes; the taste is different but overall I prefer regular potatoes:
compare verb [ T ] (CONSIDER SIMILARITIES)
does not compare
If something or someone does not compare with something or someone else, the second thing is very much better than the first:
Here are a bunch of question types that have turned up on the C&G Reading exam paper. The sort of questions you can expect to see in the exam.
- What is the meaning of the word flubalub… ? Use. See – using context clues – https://macmillanmh.com/ccssreading/treasures/grade6/ccslh_g6_lv_8_3b.html
In the context of the text what does flubalub… mean in the text? – use the dictionary BUT DON’T JUST READ THE 1ST MEANING – words mean different things. The examining board are trying to test you (obviously!)
- What is the purpose of the document? See – http://moveon-stage.excellencegateway.org.uk/ilr_php/hottopics/te/l1/indexfs.html?url=http://moveon-stage.excellencegateway.org.uk/ilr_php/hottopics/te/l1/intro/body01.htm
- What is the key theme/focus of the last paragraph? The key point of the paragraph is … ‘The writer highlights the impact of … : See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z398d2p/revision
- Which textual features are used in this text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/reading/questionsrev2.shtml
- What is an appropriate heading for the 3rd paragraph? What is an appropriate title for the text? See – http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html
In order to do this type of task well you must understand the gist, or main ideas, of each paragraph. These tips will help you do this task well.
- First read all of the headings.
- Then read the paragraphs carefully and match the ones you are sure about.
- If you are not sure about one, leave it and move on to the next one. You may be able to match up ones you are not sure about by elimination at the end.
- Be careful with extra options, e.g. six headings to match with four paragraphs. There will be two headings you don’t need.
- The final paragraph has been written in 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular/plural? See – http://study.com/academy/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person.html#lesson
- The register/tone of the text is? / The language in the text is (Formal, polite, facetious, technical) See – https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
- What is the perspective of the author? See – https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?4y393q0w5n5i & http://www.mpsaz.org/rmre/grades/grade5/homework_help/files/authors_purpose_and_perspective2.pdf
- What layout features have been used? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/dida/using_ict/presenting_informationrev3.shtml
- What discourse markers are used in this text? See – http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/discourse-markers/discourse-markers-so-right-okay
- Why is there a paragraph break between 3 and 4? See – http://www.saidsimple.com/content/100835/
- What is the target audience for the text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/writing/genreaudiencerev4.shtml
- Text type – see – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z97mxnb/revision
- The content of the text is: biased, factual, fictional, first hand, detached. See – Objective information does not vary, whereas subjective information can vary greatly from person to person or day to day. Subjectivity can actually be wrong, or far from the truth, whereas objectivity means being as close to the truth as possible.12 Jun 2014
Search for: What does it mean to be objective
- Inverted commas/speechmarks, commas, apostrophes. See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/english/spelling_grammar/punctuation/read/1/ & http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zqsyvcw/revision/4
- Colons & semi-colons http://www.colonsemicolon.com/
- What does you/it/he refer to? See – https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns
|Purpose of text questions:
to show how/why
|Type of text questions:
Leaflet (information or advertisement)
Set of instructions
Article (any published text)
Sign (danger/road/shop/school etc… can be an image too!)
Guide (travel, tourist, grammar…)
Reference book (dictionary, atlas, thesaurus)
|Questions about images:
Sign (can also be a type of text)
|Features of text:
Bullet points Block capitals
Images (see above) Internet links/web icon
Text box Bold text
A) Check out these PowerPoint links for a full explanation of the many difficulties with Subject-Verb agreement. If this is easy, then you’re doing pretty well, my friend:
Subject–Verb Agreement. Do I need an s at the end of the verb? Or should I leave the s off? This presentation covers maintaining agreement between subjects …
Subject–Verb Agreement. A Project LA Activity. Basic Rule. Singular subjects need singular verbs. Plural subjects need plural verbs. These create problems:.
B) Advanced level videos:
Subject verb agreement BBC English explanation parts 1, 2 & 3. Listen with subtitles and watch more than once if that helps:
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C) Now try some Subject-Verb agreement online exercises:
After each sentence select the verb form that will best fit in the blank. The explanation will describe the process of arriving at the correct choice for that sentence.
Read the sentences to decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. Then click the drop-down menu. answer. to see the answer.
Subject–verb agreement is one of the first things you learn in English class: “My friend is Japanese.” (singular). “My friends are Japanese.” (plural). In this English …
Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise. Look at each sentence and think about subject/verb agreement. Which is the correct answer?
An advanced English-language quiz on subject–verb agreement.
Whether you’re a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these … topic: SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH 1 | level:Advanced Choose …