Modal verbs writing exercise

Write positive statements, negative statements or questions from these prompts.

Example: It’s my wedding anniversary tomorrow (statement + should)

You should buy your partner a fantastic gift and take them out for a meal.

Now try writing these 10 from the prompts:

  1. “I have never been to Manchester Art Gallery, is it worth going?” (statement + ought to because)
  2. Ask me if I am able to ride a unicycle. (question + can/could)
  3. Ask me if you can have a chair. (question + may)
  4. “What time do I have to come to Mark’s class?” (statement + have to)
  5. “Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?” (statement + will)
  6. “Where should we go tonight?” (suggestion/question + shall)
  7. “Is it necessary to take an umbrella today?” (negative statement + need to)
  8.  Ask me if I have a pencil. (question + could)
  9. “What are you going to have for dinner?” (statement + might)
  10. “Can I drink beer in class?” (negative statement + must)
  11. “Do I need to do lots of homework?” (statement + ought to)
  12. “This work on modal verbs is very difficult.” (Suggestion/question + shall + we + easier)


  1. Yes, you ought to go because there are some interesting paintings there.

2. Can you ride a unicycle?

3. May I have a chair, please?

4. You have to come to Mark’s class at 9.15am.

5. I think it will be cloudy.

6. Shall we go to the cinema?

7. No, you don’t need to because it isn’t raining.

8. Could I borrow your pencil?

9. I might have pizza.

10. You mustn’t drink beer in class.

11. Yes, you ought to do lots of homework.

12. Shall we do something easier?


reliable geek choosy
competitive down-to-earth moody
sociable particular about selfish
sensible punctual tight-fisted
a good laugh pull your weight ambitious
keep yourself to yourself independent determined
quiet hard-working a people-person
talkative cheeky extrovert
organised creative introvert
bossy energetic kind

Writing task: The Ideal Student

Use the 2nd person and describe the ideal student.

Use at least 8 of the adjectives and phrases.

Write at least one statement using:

must, should, don’t need to, ought to, have to, might, shall





The pound dropped suddenly in May then rose dramatically in June – interpreting charts & graphs – Level 2 class notes – 21st June 2016

Homework reading & quizzes:




  1. Travel & tourism data analysis

  2. Discussing charts & graphs

  3. Adverbs & adjectives to describe data

  4. Exam model answers for Thursday

  5. Trends vocabulary

    Describing charts:


Today’s words:

be two sides of the same coin

also be different/opposite sides of the same coin

If two things are two sides of the same coin, they are very closely related although they seem different:Violent behaviour and deep insecurity are often two sides of the same coin.

break the ice definition. To remove the tension at a first meeting, at the opening of a party, etc.: “That joke really broke the ice at the conference; we all relaxed afterward.” The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition.

  • encounter verb [T] (MEET)

formal to meet someone unexpectedly:On their way home they encountered a woman sellingflowers.
  • encounter verb [T] (EXPERIENCE)

B2 to experience something, especially somethingunpleasant:When did you first encounter these difficulties?The army is reported to be encountering considerable resistance.

obsessed adjective

B2 unable to stop thinking about something; too interestedin or worried about something:Why are people so obsessed with money?As a society we’re obsessed by the weather.

odd adjective (STRANGE)

  • odd adjective (NUMBERS)

(of numbers) not able to be divided exactly by two:3, 5, and 7 are all odd numbers.The houses on this side of the street all have odd numbers.


  • odd adjective (SEPARATED)

[before noun] (of something that should be in a pair or set) separated from its pair or set:He’s got a whole drawer full of odd socks.
  • aspect noun (FEATURE)

B2 [C] one part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.:Which aspects of the job do you most enjoy?His illness affects almost every aspect of his life.That’s the most worrying aspect of the situation.Lighting is a vitally important aspect of filmmaking.Have you thought about the problem from every aspect?

menial adjective

Menial work is boring, makes you feel tired, and is given a low social value:It’s fairly menial work, such as washing dishes and cleaningfloors.a menial job/task

exaggeration noun [C or U]

C1 the fact of making something seem larger, moreimportant, better, or worse than it really is:Sal estimates over 60 people were there but I think that’s a slightexaggeration.[+ to infinitive] It would be no exaggeration to say that her workhas saved lives.

  • pursue verb [T] (FOLLOW)

to follow someone or something, usually to try to catchhim, her, or it:The car was pursued by helicopters.The hunters spent hours pursuing their prey.He was killed by the driver of a stolen car who was being hotlypursued by the police.

passion noun [C or U]

B2 a very powerful feeling, for example of sexualattraction, love, hate, anger, or other emotion:Football arouses a good deal of passion among its fans.At school, his early interest in music developed into an abidingpassion.Politics and philosophy were his lifelong passions.

a passion for sth

C1 an extreme interest in or wish for doing something, such as a hobby, activity, etc.:Anton has a consuming passion for science fiction.

passions [plural]

very powerful feelings:Touch a man’s property and his passions are immediately aroused.

plant noun (LIVING THING)

  • plant noun (BUILDING/MACHINES)

[U] machines used in industry:The industry was accused of having invested little inworkers, plant, or infrastructure.
[C] a factory in which a particular product is made orpower is produced:Two more car-assembly plants were closed by the strike.

considerable adjective

B2 large or of noticeable importance:The fire caused considerable damage to the church.


adverb UK   /kənˈsɪd.ər.ə.bli/ US   /kənˈsɪd.ɚ.ə.bli/


adverb UK   /kənˈsɪd.ər.ə.bli/ US   /kənˈsɪd.ɚ.ə.bli/

expend iconexpend iconMore examples

He’s considerably fatter than he was when I knew him.

recruitment agency noun [C]

UK   US   also recruiting agency mainly UK HR

recruit verb [T]

C1 to persuade someone to work for a company or becomea new member of an organization, especially the army:Charities such as Oxfam are always trying to recruit volunteers tohelp in their work.Even young boys are now being recruited into the army recruiting centre/officer

euphemism noun [C or U]

a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant oroffensive word:“Senior citizen” is a euphemism forold person“.The article made so much use of euphemism that often itsmeaning was unclear.

widely adverb

B2 including a lot of different places, people, subjects, etc.:They have both travelled widely.His plays are still widely performed in the USA.French used to be widely spoken in Cambodia.His work on DNA was widely admired.This is a widely held but mistaken belief.This theory is no longer widely accepted.

differ/vary widely

B2 to be very different:Prices vary widely from shop to shop.

surely adverb

B2 used to express that you are certain or almost certainabout something:The problem surely lies in the design of the equipment.US formal “May I sit here?” “Surely.” (= Yes, certainly.)Without more food and medical supplies, these people will surely not survive.

B2 used to express surprise that something has happenedor is going to happen:Surely you don’t expect me to believe that?

longing noun [S or U]

C2 a feeling of wanting something or someone very much:He gazed at her, his eyes full of longing.a longing looka longing for his homeland

longingly adverb

hysterical adjective

C1 unable to control your feelings or behaviour because you are extremely frightened, angry, excited, etc.:Calm down, you’re getting hysterical.The police were accused of hysterical over-reaction.hysterical laughter (= uncontrolled laughter)

informal extremely funny:His last film was hysterical.

conscientious adjective

C1 putting a lot of effort into your work:a conscientious student

sorely adverb

extremely; very much:I was sorely tempted to say exactly what I thought of hisoffer.You’ll be sorely missed by everyone here, and we wish yousuccess in your new job.

  • treacherous adjective (DANGEROUS)

If the ground or sea is treacherous, it is extremelydangerous, especially because of bad weatherconditions:Snow and ice have left many roads treacherous, and drivers arewarned to use caution.

collocation noun

B2 [C] also collocate, a word or phrase that is often used with another word or phrase, in a way that soundscorrect to people who have spoken the language all theirlives, but might not be expected from the meaning:In the phrase “a hard frost“, “hard” is a collocation of “frost” and “strong” would not sound natural.

B2 [C] the combination of words formed when two or more words are often used together in a way that soundscorrect:The phrase “a hard frost” is a collocation.
[U] the regular use of some words and phrases withothers, especially in a way that is difficult to guess

factory farming  noun

a system of rearing livestock using highly intensive methods, by which poultry, pigs, or cattle are confined indoors under strictly controlled conditions.

a laboratory:

a man wearing a traditional Scottish kilt:


a floral patterned suit:

a striped blazer:

George Clooney wearing a polka dot shirt and jacket:

a checked suit:

The Sandal Monument in Asmara.

Complaining about the weather is a full-time job – Entry 3 Group 2 class notes 8th June 2016

Loud bursts of thunder and brilliant flashes of lightning were captured by residents on mobile phones on Tuesday night as the humid, sunny weather gave way to violent thunderstorms.


  1. Find a fan to keep the classroom cool!

  2. Why do British people always talk about the weather?

  3. Discuss the most annoying things in Britain today

  4. When was the last time you complained?

  5. Formal letter writing style

  6. Write a complaint letter to a restaurant

What is most annoying for you?

Spam email?


Or traffic jams?

Formal letter format:


Today’s words:

insist verb [I]

B1 to say firmly or demand forcefully, especially whenothers disagree with or oppose what you say:[+ (that)] Greg still insists (that) he did nothing wrong.Please go first – I insist!She insisted on seeing her lawyer.

inconvenience noun [C or U]

C1 a state or an example of problems or trouble, oftencausing a delay or loss of comfort:We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the late arrival of the train.We had the inconvenience of being unable to use the kitchen for several weeks.Having to wait for ten minutes was a minor inconvenience.

convenient adjective

B1 suitable for your purposes and needs and causing the least difficulty:Our local shop has very convenient opening hours.A bike’s a very convenient way of getting around.

near or easy to get to or use:a very convenient bus serviceOur new house is very convenient for (= near to) the kidsschool.

reserve verb [T]

B1 to keep something for a particular purpose or time:I reserve Mondays for tidying my desk and answeringletters.These seats are reserved for the elderly and women with babies.I reserve judgment on this issue (= I won’t give an opinion on it now) until we have more information.

B1 If you reserve something such as a seat on an aircraftor a table at a restaurant, you arrange for it to be keptfor your use:I reserved a double room at the Lamb Hotel.
  • reservation noun (THING KEPT)

B1 [C or U] an arrangement in which something such as aseat on an aircraft or a table at a restaurant is kept for you:I’d like to make a table reservation for two people for nine o’clock.

chaos noun [U]

B2 a state of total confusion with no order:Snow and ice have caused chaos on the roads.Ever since our secretary walked out, the office has been in astate of total/utter chaos.

Complaint letter – Entry 3 Group 2 – 4th May 2016


  1. Review game – articles & superlatives

  2. Review game – part 2 – lots of grammar and vocabulary

  3. Complaining -role play

  4. Composing a complaint letter

  5. Formal writing

  6. Abdulaziz presentation on Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin:

The journey of the Beagle (Charles Darwin’s ship)

Today’s words:

Faithfully or Sincerely?

Which do you use to sign off a letter?

This is a very useful mnemonic.

The rule is “Never 2 S’s together”

Dear Sir / Yours Faithfully.

Dear Mr A.N. Other / Yours Sincerely.

faithfully adverb

faithfully adverb (LOYALLY)

in a loyal way or a way that can be trusted:He served the family faithfully for 40 years.She promised faithfully (= made a firm promise) that she would never leave him.

Yours faithfully B2 mainly UK

used at the end of a formal letter beginning with “DearSir” or “Dear Madam

sincerely adverb

honestly and without pretending or lying:I’m sincerely grateful.

(yours) sincerely B1 (US also Sincerely yours)

used to end a formal letter that is sent to a particular person

purchase verb [T]

B2 to buy something:Tickets must be purchased two weeks in advance.Except under clearly defined circumstances, it is illegal in Britainfor a company to purchase its own shares.She purchased her first house with the money.

trace verb [T]

trace verb [T] (FIND)

C1 to find someone or something that was lost:The police are trying to trace the mother of a newborn babyfound abandoned outside a hospital.Attempts to trace the whereabouts of a man seen leaving thescene of the crime have so far been unsuccessful.Their missing daughter was finally traced to (= found in)Manchester.
C1 to find the origin of something:The phone company was unable to trace the call.No one has yet been able to trace the source of the rumour.