Modal verbs writing exercise

Write positive statements, negative statements or questions from these prompts.

Example: It’s my wedding anniversary tomorrow (statement + should)

You should buy your partner a fantastic gift and take them out for a meal.

Now try writing these 10 from the prompts:

  1. “I have never been to Manchester Art Gallery, is it worth going?” (statement + ought to because)
  2. Ask me if I am able to ride a unicycle. (question + can/could)
  3. Ask me if you can have a chair. (question + may)
  4. “What time do I have to come to Mark’s class?” (statement + have to)
  5. “Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?” (statement + will)
  6. “Where should we go tonight?” (suggestion/question + shall)
  7. “Is it necessary to take an umbrella today?” (negative statement + need to)
  8.  Ask me if I have a pencil. (question + could)
  9. “What are you going to have for dinner?” (statement + might)
  10. “Can I drink beer in class?” (negative statement + must)
  11. “Do I need to do lots of homework?” (statement + ought to)
  12. “This work on modal verbs is very difficult.” (Suggestion/question + shall + we + easier)

POSSIBLE ANSWERS

  1. Yes, you ought to go because there are some interesting paintings there.

2. Can you ride a unicycle?

3. May I have a chair, please?

4. You have to come to Mark’s class at 9.15am.

5. I think it will be cloudy.

6. Shall we go to the cinema?

7. No, you don’t need to because it isn’t raining.

8. Could I borrow your pencil?

9. I might have pizza.

10. You mustn’t drink beer in class.

11. Yes, you ought to do lots of homework.

12. Shall we do something easier?

THIS WEEK’S PERSONALITY ADJECTIVES & PHRASES

reliable geek choosy
competitive down-to-earth moody
sociable particular about selfish
sensible punctual tight-fisted
a good laugh pull your weight ambitious
keep yourself to yourself independent determined
quiet hard-working a people-person
talkative cheeky extrovert
organised creative introvert
bossy energetic kind

Writing task: The Ideal Student

Use the 2nd person and describe the ideal student.

Use at least 8 of the adjectives and phrases.

Write at least one statement using:

must, should, don’t need to, ought to, have to, might, shall

 

 

 

 

You ought to learn how to use modals correctly

Now complete this quiz.

More Online exercises below

Level 1 – present tense verb revision

Present tenses:

Which of these situations go best with present simple & which go best with present continuous?

PERMANENT TEMPORARY HABIT JUST NOW
SELDOM OCCASIONALLY THESE DAYS, BUT NOT FOR LONG CLASS TIMES
SOMETHING YOU DO ONCE A YEAR NEVER AT THE MOMENT THE WEATHER TODAY
  1. ‘How do you prefer to study?’ ‘I _________ about the topic and ______ notes.
  2. ‘What languages ______________?’ ‘Chinese, Slovak and Spanish.’
  3. ‘Who _____________ that violin?’ (violin = musical instrument) ‘My wife.’
  4. ‘Your daughter’s very keen on keep fit, isn’t she?’ ‘Yes, _______ yoga and __________  spinning classes at the leisure centre.’ (spinning class = an exercise class)
  5. ‘Where is she now?’ ‘She _____________ weights in her bedroom.’ (weights = dumbbells – exercise equipment)
  6. ‘Who is  ______________ the saxophone in the flat upstairs? Do they ___________ every night? How do you _________?’ (saxophone = a musical instrument)
  7. ‘What’s that song ___________ upstairs?’ ‘I can’t hear it. Oh, yes, she _______________ to One Direction again. She ____________________ them every day. I really ____________ them!’
  8. ‘I know you like _____________ Arabic, but can we __________ in English in class, please?’
  9.  ‘Do you usually wear that hat?’ ‘No, it’s new, normally I _____________ a baseball cap like Ahmed’s. He usually ______________ that red MAGA red one, but today he _______________ a blue NIKE one.
  10. ‘What a lovely watch!’ ‘It ________________________ I’m afraid – it’s been broken for years.’
  11. ‘Could I use your phone?’ ‘I’m afraid it _________________________ at the moment.’

 

Repeated actions not around the moment of speaking: present simple.

Repeated actions around the moment of speaking: present continuous.

We use the present simple for events – things that happen one after another.

We use present continuous for background – things that are already happening when the story starts, or that continue through part of the story.

  • Write a 3 sentence story using both tenses & read it to your partner.

  • Instructions & directions – what tense do we use to write and give instructions?

  • We use present continuous for changing and developing situations

  • Write 3 sentences to illustrate this use of the present continuous.

The world’s population You Your English Prices
Pandas The company Nokia Teenagers The political situation in the UK
cities Us books athletes
Elderly people The USA traffic Autumn

3rd person singular.

  1. What is the most common way of making the 3rd person singular?
  2. What happens with words ending in vowel + y?
  3. What happens with words ending in consonant + y?
  4. After which consonants and groups of consonants do we add -es?
  5. Which two other common words add – es?

Write the third person singular of these verbs?

Box Brush Buy Complete
Cry Defend Deny Destroy
Excite Expect Fry Guess
Look Pray Reach Receive
Rush Spend Want watch

Verbs we don’t use with present continuous

Try to make sentences using these words in the present tense:

Believe Belong Contain Forget
Hate Like Love Matter
Need Own Prefer Realise
Remember Suppose Understand Want
 ‘see’, ‘hear’, ‘taste’, ‘smell’, ‘feel’ are verbs that describe senses. These verbs aren’t usually used in continuous forms. They are often used with ‘can’.
What is a stative verb in English grammar?
An example of a continuous tense is the present continuous or past continuous. These verbs are called stative, or state verbs. A verb which isn’t stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action. Often stative verbs are about liking or disliking something, or about a mental state, not about an action.

Conjunctions and connectors – Level 2 – class notes

Objectives
1. Review quiz

2. Homework check – text meaning

3. Reading about linear and natural time

4. Conjunctions matching exercise

5. Conjunctions kahoots!

What is a discourse marker in English?
Discourse markers are words and phrases used in speaking and writing to ‘signpost’ discourse. Discourse markers do this by showing turns, joining ideas together, showing attitude, and generally controlling communication. Some people regard discourse markers as a feature of spoken language only.

adjective – English is important. Coming to class on time is important.

adverb – People shouldn’t stay on their phones for too long, more importantly young people shouldn’t even have phones. Ever!

more & most = comparative + superlative

I like ice cream, indeed it’s my favourite food.

British weather is not always amazing, in the case of the recent floods many people’s houses have been ruined.

I like ice cream, similarly I like cake.

I like ice cream, conversely I don’t like cake.

contrasting images:

Random other topics!

Winter storm names in the UK

2015–16 Abigail Barney Clodagh Desmond Eva Frank Gertrude Henry Imogen Jake Katie
Lawrence Mary Nigel Orla Phil Rhonda Steve Tegan Vernon Wendy

A film about drugs. Who are the intended audience?Is the primary purpose of this film informative or persuasive?

Today’s words:

conversely adverb [not gradable]

from a different and opposite way of looking at this:He was regarded either as too imitative to be considered originalor, conversely, as being overly original.

sarcasm noun [U]

the use of remarks that clearly mean the opposite of what they say, made in order to hurt someone’s feelings or to criticize something in a humorous way:“You have been working hard,” he said with heavy sarcasm, as he looked at the empty page.

Compare

 

Compare & Contrast – Things we find difficult – part 3

The difference between the verbs ‘to compare’ and ‘to contrast’ seems to have caused some heated debate. Probably more than it should. I’m not sure why. Perhaps it’s the perenial potato debate. Which do you prefer? Sweet potatoes or old fashioned regular potatoes? Or how about yams? Surely a discussion about potatoes couldn’t cause so much argument, could it?

Let’s look at the meaning of ‘to contrast’ first because it’s easier to understand:

contrast verb

C2 [ T ]to compare two people or things in order to show thedifferences between them:

If you contrast some of her early writing with her later work, you can see just how much she improved.

 

C2 [ I ]If one thing contrasts with another, it is very different from it:

The styles of the two film makers contrast quite dramatically.
The tartness of the lemons contrasts with the sweetness of the honey.
So the potatoes are rounder, and obviously, the sweet potatoes are ummm sweeter. I’m not doing very well here….
Cleveland Health Clinic explain that, “Sweet potatoes provide 400% of your daily requirement of vitamin A. They also have more vitamin C, fewer calories, more fibre and fewer total carbs than white potatoes, despite more sugar. But don’t forget white potatoes — they’re more versatile in cooking and less expensive.
So that’s the contrast sorted. Fine. We’re happy with that. One is usually white the other is usually orange. Contrast! Easy… So, to compare:

compare verb [ T ] (EXAMINE DIFFERENCES)

B1 to examine or look for the difference between two or more things:

If you compare house prices in the two areas, it’s quite amazing how different they are.
That seems expensive – have you compared prices in other shops?
Compare some recent work with your older stuff and you’ll see how much you’ve improved.
This road is quite busy compared to/with ours
But – we also use ‘to compare’ – to talk about similarities and to decide which thing is better. We can make chips out of potatoes and sweet potatoes; the taste is different but overall I prefer regular potatoes:

compare verb [ T ] (CONSIDER SIMILARITIES)

to judge, suggest, or consider that something is similar or of equal quality to something else:

The poet compares his lover’s tongue to a razor blade.
Still only 25, she has been compared to the greatest dancer of all time.
People compared her to Elizabeth Taylor.
You can’t compare the two cities – they’re totally different.

does not compare

 

If something or someone does not compare with something or someone else, the second thing is very much better than the first:

Instant coffee just doesn’t compare with freshly ground coffee.

compare favourably

 

If something compares favourably with something else, it is better than it:

The hotel certainly compared favourably with the one we stayed in last year.

Ranting & raving – pros and cons of getting married – Level 1 & Level 2

Class objectives

  1. Ranting and raving for one minute without stopping.
  2. Ranting about marriage for 3 minutes
  3. Marriage vocabulary & idioms knowledge check
  4. Cost Benefit Analysis of marriage issues
  5. Reading & ordering a Pros & Cons essay
  6. Using linking words to connect contrasting ideas in essays: despite & whereas
  7. Writing a Pros & Cons essay (homework)

Marriage statistics & differences around the world

World Marriage Data 

Do married women live longer than single women?
Indeed, statistically speaking, men get a much better deal out of marriage than their wives—married men tend to live many years longer than single men, whereas married women live only a little bit longer than single women.
Do men live longer if they are married?
Men who have marital partners also live longer than men without spouses; men who marry after age 25 get more protection than those who tie the knot at a younger age, and the longer a man stays married, the greater his survival advantage over his unmarried peers.

Marriage discussion questions

Do a cost benefits analysis of:

  1. Age difference
  2. Getting married multiple times
  3. Age of marriage
  4. Arranged marriage
  5. Blind date
  6. Love at first sight
  7. having 4 wives or husbands (polygamy)/monogamy (single partner)
  8. Marriage vows
  9. Welfare & financial benefits of marriage
  10. Being common-law partners

Dating & Marriage vocabulary

Using contrasting linking words quizzes & explanations:

Whereas

We use the conjunction whereas to indicate a contrast between two facts or ideas:

He loves foreign holidays, whereas his wife prefers to stay at home.

Whereas most new PCs have several USB slots, older ones often only had one.

Warning:

Whereas means the same as while in sentences expressing contrasts. It does not mean the same as while when while refers to time:

The south has a hot, dry climate, whereas/while the north has a milder, wetter climate.

The secretary took care of my appointments while I was away from the office.

Not: … whereas I was away from the office.

In spite of and despite

In spite of and despite are prepositional expressions.

In spite of and despite have a similar meaning to although or even though. They express a contrast between two things. They are both more common in writing than in speaking. Despite is a little more formal than in spite of.

We usually use in spite of and despite with a noun:

He got the job in spite of his prison record.

[recession is a time when the economy of a country is not good]

John’s company is doing extremely well despite the recession.

We can also use in spite of and despite with –ing:

He was very fast in spite of being terribly overweight.

They arrived late despite leaving in plenty of time.

Warning:

We don’t use a that-clause after in spite of or despite. We use in spite of the fact that or despite the fact that:

When they arrived at Malaga it was hot, in spite of the fact that it was only the end of April.

Not: … in spite of that it was only the end of April

In spite of is written as three separate words. We never use of with despite:

They enjoyed the rides in spite of the long queues. (or … despite the long queues.)

Not: … inspite the long queues or … despite of the long queues.

 

Today’s words:

rant verb [ I ]

He’s always ranting (on) about the government.
I get fed up with my mother ranting and raving (about my clothes) all the time.
tying the knot – idiom
Image result for marriage ball and chain idiom
Ball and chain – old fashioned & sexist idiom:
Image result for marriage ball and chain idiom
cost benefit analysis – used especially in business
Image result for cost benefit analysis

pro noun [ C ] (ADVANTAGE)

B2 an advantage to or a reason for doing something:

One of the big pros of living in Madrid is the nightlife.

con noun (DISADVANTAGE)

[ C usually plural ] informala disadvantage or areason for not doing something:

One of the cons of buying a bigger car is that it costs more to run.
You have to weigh up all the pros and cons of the matter before you make a decision.
 

Level 1 & 2 – Last minute Reading exam revision crib sheet

Here are a bunch of question types that have turned up on the C&G Reading exam paper. The sort of questions you can expect to see in the exam.

  1. What is the meaning of the word flubalub… ? Use. See – using context clues – https://macmillanmh.com/ccssreading/treasures/grade6/ccslh_g6_lv_8_3b.html

In the context of the text what does flubalub… mean in the text? – use the dictionary BUT DON’T JUST READ THE 1ST MEANING – words mean different things. The examining board are trying to test you (obviously!)

  1. What is the purpose of the document? See – https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/zqx8hv4/revision
  2. What is the key theme/focus of the last paragraph? The key point of the paragraph is … ‘The writer highlights the impact of … : See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z398d2p/revision
  3. Which textual features are used in this text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/reading/questionsrev2.shtml
  4. What is an appropriate heading for the 3rd paragraph? What is an appropriate title for the text? See – http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html

In order to do this type of task well you must understand the gist, or main ideas, of each paragraph. These tips will help you do this task well.

  • First read all of the headings.
  • Then read the paragraphs carefully and match the ones you are sure about.
  • If you are not sure about one, leave it and move on to the next one. You may be able to match up ones you are not sure about by elimination at the end.
  • Be careful with extra options, e.g. six headings to match with four paragraphs. There will be two headings you don’t need.
  1. The final paragraph has been written in 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular/plural? See – http://study.com/academy/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person.html#lesson
  2. The register/tone of the text is? / The language in the text is (Formal, polite, facetious, technical) See – https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
  3. What is the perspective of the author? See – https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?4y393q0w5n5i & http://www.mpsaz.org/rmre/grades/grade5/homework_help/files/authors_purpose_and_perspective2.pdf
  4. What layout features have been used? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/dida/using_ict/presenting_informationrev3.shtml
  5. What discourse markers are used in this text? See – http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/discourse-markers/discourse-markers-so-right-okay
  6. Why is there a paragraph break between 3 and 4? See – http://www.saidsimple.com/content/100835/
  7. What is the target audience for the text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/writing/genreaudiencerev4.shtml
  8. Text type – see – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z97mxnb/revision
  9. The content of the text is: biased, factual, fictional, first hand, detached. See – Objective information does not vary, whereas subjective information can vary greatly from person to person or day to day. Subjectivity can actually be wrong, or far from the truth, whereas objectivity means being as close to the truth as possible.12 Jun 2014

Objective vs Subjective Writing: Understanding the Difference

https://blog.udemy.com/objective-vs-subjective/

Search for: What does it mean to be objective

  1. Inverted commas/speechmarks, commas, apostrophes. See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/english/spelling_grammar/punctuation/read/1/ & http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zqsyvcw/revision/4
  2. Colons & semi-colons   http://www.colonsemicolon.com/
  3. What does you/it/he refer to? See – https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns
Purpose of text questions:

describe

advertise

explain

persuade

enterain

inform

instruct

advertise

entertain

warn

sell

show

give instructions/advice

offer help/advice

to show how/why

 

Type of text questions:

Letter (formal/informal)

Leaflet (information or advertisement)

Pamphlet

Set of instructions

Email (formal/informal)

Poster

Advertisement

Text message

Article (any published text)

Timetable

Invitation

Webpage

Sign (danger/road/shop/school etc… can be an image too!)

Certificate

Form

Guide (travel, tourist, grammar…)

Reference book (dictionary, atlas, thesaurus)

Questions about images:

Logo

Sign (can also be a type of text)

Diagram

Photograph

Graph

Illustration

Drawing

 

Language questions:

Scientific

Descriptive

Instructive

Persuasive

Informative

Informal

Formal

Humorous

Aggressive

Features of text:

Bullet points                 Block capitals

Images (see above)     Internet links/web icon

Text box                        Bold text

Columns                       Italics

Headings                     Subheadings

Numbers                     Captions

Things we find difficult to understand – part 2 – collective nouns

collective noun  [ C ]

a noun that describes a group of things or people as a unit:

“Family” and “flock” are examples of collective nouns.
Collective nouns are often very peculiar and very particular. You don’t need to know them all (most people don’t), but they are fun to know and make for excellent conversation starters if you’re a language geek!

A) Check out these lists of collective nouns on buzzle.com  then try the online tests:

B) Collective nouns – online tests:

Collective nouns, English skills online, interactive activity lessons

Abstract nouns. Collective nouns. Apostrophes – possession (Common and proper nouns). L.1.1.c – Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic …

Subject-verb agreement with collective nouns – Quizzes – Language …

Does a singular collective noun take a singular or plural verb? Well, it depends. If the collective noun refers to the group as a unit, then it takes a singular verb.

Collective Noun Quiz – ProProfs Quiz

This quiz was created for beginner ESL learners studying collective nouns.

Quiz: Collective Nouns – CliffsNotes

Choose the TRUE statement. Collective nouns are always singular.Collective nouns may function as verbs. Collective nouns may be singular or plural. Previous.

collective nouns 1 – Englishleap.com

COLLECTIVE NOUNS EXERCISE 1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION: … Related Exercises. Auxiliary Verbs Exercise – 1 · Collective Nouns Exercise – 2.

Things we find difficult to understand – part 1 – Subject-Verb agreement in sentences

A) Check out these PowerPoint links for a full explanation of the many difficulties with Subject-Verb agreement. If this is easy, then you’re doing pretty well, my friend:

[PPT]Subject – Verb Agreement PPT – Grammar Bytes!

SubjectVerb Agreement. Do I need an s at the end of the verb? Or should I leave the s off? This presentation covers maintaining agreement between subjects …

[PPT]Subject and Verb Agreement

SubjectVerb Agreement. A Project LA Activity. Basic Rule. Singular subjects need singular verbs. Plural subjects need plural verbs. These create problems:.

B) Advanced level videos:

Subject verb agreement BBC English explanation parts 1, 2 & 3. Listen with subtitles and watch more than once if that helps:

subscribe for more excellent and complex language advice:

bbclearningenglish bbclearningenglish

C) Now try some Subject-Verb agreement online exercises:

A SECOND QUIZ ON SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

After each sentence select the verb form that will best fit in the blank. The explanation will describe the process of arriving at the correct choice for that sentence.

Subject Verb Agreement Quiz

Read the sentences to decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. Then click the drop-down menu. answer. to see the answer.

ESL Quiz – Subject-Verb Agreement (Difficult) (Keith S. Folse) I-TESL-J

ESL Quiz – SubjectVerb Agreement (Difficult) (Keith S. Folse) I-TESL-J … This quiz is part of Interactive JavaScript Quizzes for ESL Students. Quiz Data …
Subjectverb agreement is one of the first things you learn in English class: “My friend is Japanese.” (singular). “My friends are Japanese.” (plural). In this English …

Advanced Grammar | Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise | esl-lounge …

Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise. Look at each sentence and think about subject/verb agreement. Which is the correct answer?

Subject-Verb Agreement: Advanced – Quizzes – Language Portal of …

An advanced English-language quiz on subjectverb agreement.
Whether you’re a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these … topic: SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH 1 | level:Advanced Choose …

The Holstee Manifesto -make your own version.

After reading about the German woman who lives without money now it’s time for you to be a lifestyle guru and write your own manifesto for life:

This is your life ………
If you don’t like something……….
If you don’t like your job……….
If you don’t have enough time, ………..
If you are looking for the love of your life……….
Stop over-analysing, ………..
All emotions are ………..
When you eat, ………..
Life is simple.
Open your heart, mind and arms to new things and people, we are united in our differences.
Ask the next person you see ……….
Travel often; ………..
Some opportunities only come once, ……….
Life is about……….            so go out and start creating.
Life is short, ……….    your dream and ………. your passion.”