1. Review quiz
2. Homework check – text meaning
3. Reading about linear and natural time
4. Conjunctions matching exercise
5. Conjunctions kahoots!
What is a discourse marker in English?
Discourse markers are words and phrases used in speaking and writing to ‘signpost’ discourse. Discourse markers do this by showing turns, joining ideas together, showing attitude, and generally controlling communication. Some people regard discourse markers as a feature of spoken language only.
adjective – English is important. Coming to class on time is important.
adverb – People shouldn’t stay on their phones for too long, more importantly young people shouldn’t even have phones. Ever!
more & most = comparative + superlative
I like ice cream, indeed it’s my favourite food.
British weather is not always amazing, in the case of the recent floods many people’s houses have been ruined.
I like ice cream, similarly I like cake.
I like ice cream, conversely I don’t like cake.
Random other topics!
Winter storm names in the UK
A film about drugs. Who are the intended audience?Is the primary purpose of this film informative or persuasive?
The difference between the verbs ‘to compare’ and ‘to contrast’ seems to have caused some heated debate. Probably more than it should. I’m not sure why. Perhaps it’s the perenial potato debate. Which do you prefer? Sweet potatoes or old fashioned regular potatoes? Or how about yams? Surely a discussion about potatoes couldn’t cause so much argument, could it?
Let’s look at the meaning of ‘to contrast’ first because it’s easier to understand:
C2 [ I ]If one thing contrasts with another, it is very different from it:
So the potatoes are rounder, and obviously, the sweet potatoes are ummm sweeter. I’m not doing very well here….
Cleveland Health Clinic explain that, “Sweet potatoes provide 400% of your daily requirement of vitamin A. They also have more vitamin C, fewer calories, more fibre and fewer total carbs than white potatoes, despite more sugar. But don’t forget white potatoes — they’re more versatile in cooking and less expensive.“
So that’s the contrast sorted. Fine. We’re happy with that. One is usually white the other is usually orange. Contrast! Easy… So, to compare:
But – we also use ‘to compare’ – to talk about similarities and to decide which thing is better. We can make chips out of potatoes and sweet potatoes; the taste is different but overall I prefer regular potatoes:
compare verb [ T ] (CONSIDER SIMILARITIES)
does not compare
If something or someone does not compare with something or someone else, the second thing is very much better than the first:
- Ranting and raving for one minute without stopping.
- Ranting about marriage for 3 minutes
- Marriage vocabulary & idioms knowledge check
- Cost Benefit Analysis of marriage issues
- Reading & ordering a Pros & Cons essay
- Using linking words to connect contrasting ideas in essays: despite & whereas
- Writing a Pros & Cons essay (homework)
Marriage statistics & differences around the world
World Marriage Data
Do married women live longer than single women?
Indeed, statistically speaking, men get a much better deal out of marriage than their wives—married men tend to live many years longer than single men, whereas married women live only a little bit longer than single women.
Do men live longer if they are married?
Men who have marital partners also live longer than men without spouses; men who marry after age 25 get more protection than those who tie the knot at a younger age, and the longer a man stays married, the greater his survival advantage over his unmarried peers.
Marriage discussion questions
Do a cost benefits analysis of:
- Age difference
- Getting married multiple times
- Age of marriage
- Arranged marriage
- Blind date
- Love at first sight
- having 4 wives or husbands (polygamy)/monogamy (single partner)
- Marriage vows
- Welfare & financial benefits of marriage
- Being common-law partners
Dating & Marriage vocabulary
Using contrasting linking words quizzes & explanations:
We use the conjunction whereas to indicate a contrast between two facts or ideas:
He loves foreign holidays, whereas his wife prefers to stay at home.
Whereas most new PCs have several USB slots, older ones often only had one.
Whereas means the same as while in sentences expressing contrasts. It does not mean the same as while when while refers to time:
The south has a hot, dry climate, whereas/while the north has a milder, wetter climate.
The secretary took care of my appointments while I was away from the office.
whereas I was away from the office.
In spite of and despite are prepositional expressions.
In spite of and despite have a similar meaning to although or even though. They express a contrast between two things. They are both more common in writing than in speaking. Despite is a little more formal than in spite of.
We usually use in spite of and despite with a noun:
He got the job in spite of his prison record.
[recession is a time when the economy of a country is not good]
John’s company is doing extremely well despite the recession.
We can also use in spite of and despite with –ing:
He was very fast in spite of being terribly overweight.
They arrived late despite leaving in plenty of time.
We don’t use a that-clause after in spite of or despite. We use in spite of the fact that or despite the fact that:
When they arrived at Malaga it was hot, in spite of the fact that it was only the end of April.
in spite of that it was only the end of April
In spite of is written as three separate words. We never use of with despite:
They enjoyed the rides in spite of the long queues. (or … despite the long queues.)
inspite the long queues or … despite of the long queues.
Ball and chain – old fashioned & sexist idiom:
cost benefit analysis – used especially in business
pro noun [ C ] (ADVANTAGE)
Here are a bunch of question types that have turned up on the C&G Reading exam paper. The sort of questions you can expect to see in the exam.
- What is the meaning of the word flubalub… ? Use. See – using context clues – https://macmillanmh.com/ccssreading/treasures/grade6/ccslh_g6_lv_8_3b.html
In the context of the text what does flubalub… mean in the text? – use the dictionary BUT DON’T JUST READ THE 1ST MEANING – words mean different things. The examining board are trying to test you (obviously!)
- What is the purpose of the document? See – https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/zqx8hv4/revision
- What is the key theme/focus of the last paragraph? The key point of the paragraph is … ‘The writer highlights the impact of … : See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z398d2p/revision
- Which textual features are used in this text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/reading/questionsrev2.shtml
- What is an appropriate heading for the 3rd paragraph? What is an appropriate title for the text? See – http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html
In order to do this type of task well you must understand the gist, or main ideas, of each paragraph. These tips will help you do this task well.
- First read all of the headings.
- Then read the paragraphs carefully and match the ones you are sure about.
- If you are not sure about one, leave it and move on to the next one. You may be able to match up ones you are not sure about by elimination at the end.
- Be careful with extra options, e.g. six headings to match with four paragraphs. There will be two headings you don’t need.
- The final paragraph has been written in 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular/plural? See – http://study.com/academy/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person.html#lesson
- The register/tone of the text is? / The language in the text is (Formal, polite, facetious, technical) See – https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
- What is the perspective of the author? See – https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?4y393q0w5n5i & http://www.mpsaz.org/rmre/grades/grade5/homework_help/files/authors_purpose_and_perspective2.pdf
- What layout features have been used? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/dida/using_ict/presenting_informationrev3.shtml
- What discourse markers are used in this text? See – http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/discourse-markers/discourse-markers-so-right-okay
- Why is there a paragraph break between 3 and 4? See – http://www.saidsimple.com/content/100835/
- What is the target audience for the text? See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/english/writing/genreaudiencerev4.shtml
- Text type – see – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z97mxnb/revision
- The content of the text is: biased, factual, fictional, first hand, detached. See – Objective information does not vary, whereas subjective information can vary greatly from person to person or day to day. Subjectivity can actually be wrong, or far from the truth, whereas objectivity means being as close to the truth as possible.12 Jun 2014
Search for: What does it mean to be objective
- Inverted commas/speechmarks, commas, apostrophes. See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/english/spelling_grammar/punctuation/read/1/ & http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zqsyvcw/revision/4
- Colons & semi-colons http://www.colonsemicolon.com/
- What does you/it/he refer to? See – https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns
|Purpose of text questions:
to show how/why
|Type of text questions:
Leaflet (information or advertisement)
Set of instructions
Article (any published text)
Sign (danger/road/shop/school etc… can be an image too!)
Guide (travel, tourist, grammar…)
Reference book (dictionary, atlas, thesaurus)
|Questions about images:
Sign (can also be a type of text)
|Features of text:
Bullet points Block capitals
Images (see above) Internet links/web icon
Text box Bold text
A) Check out these PowerPoint links for a full explanation of the many difficulties with Subject-Verb agreement. If this is easy, then you’re doing pretty well, my friend:
Subject–Verb Agreement. Do I need an s at the end of the verb? Or should I leave the s off? This presentation covers maintaining agreement between subjects …
Subject–Verb Agreement. A Project LA Activity. Basic Rule. Singular subjects need singular verbs. Plural subjects need plural verbs. These create problems:.
B) Advanced level videos:
Subject verb agreement BBC English explanation parts 1, 2 & 3. Listen with subtitles and watch more than once if that helps:
subscribe for more excellent and complex language advice:
C) Now try some Subject-Verb agreement online exercises:
After each sentence select the verb form that will best fit in the blank. The explanation will describe the process of arriving at the correct choice for that sentence.
Read the sentences to decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. Then click the drop-down menu. answer. to see the answer.
Subject–verb agreement is one of the first things you learn in English class: “My friend is Japanese.” (singular). “My friends are Japanese.” (plural). In this English …
Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise. Look at each sentence and think about subject/verb agreement. Which is the correct answer?
An advanced English-language quiz on subject–verb agreement.
Whether you’re a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these … topic: SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH 1 | level:Advanced Choose …
2nd Conditional warmers – could & would
How can we be happier?
Will money make you happier? What is work/life balance?
What could you live without?
Find out definitions for these words: freeganism, forage & road kill.
Read about a life without money.
Work in groups to come up with ideas to make life happier.
The Happiness Formula
Complete these sentences and be ready to explain why you are saying this
a) Happiness is …….
b) Money can’t make you happy …
What is the Rat Race? Is it possible to escape it?
disapproving the situation in which too much attention is given to buying and owning things:
Black Friday is coming soon – this was the scene in London 2 years ago:
Are these statements true or false:
People are wealthier and happier than 50 years ago.
Consumerism hasn’t made people happy.
Scientists think we should change our way of life
Watch the video and think about these questions:
A) Why hasn’t consumerism (the work+buy ethic) made people happy?
B) How should we change our way of life?
Life without money
Could you live without money? Think of 3 advantages of a life without money.
Look up these three words on your phone: 1. Road kill (noun) 2. to forage (verb) 3. freegan & freeganism
Article in The Independent about a German woman living without money
Listen to an English podcast about the German woman Heidemarie Schwermer who made a deliberate choice to live without money 14 years ago.
Present perfect revision exercises:
The two words, hung vs. hanged, are both the past tense of hang but have different uses in a sentence. Hanged refers to death by hanging, whether it be suicide or execution.
the amount of respect, admiration, or importancegiven to a person, organization, or object:
on secondment Next month Douglas, who has been on secondment from BT, goes back to his old job.
I assume fish and chips is the most popular meal in Britain. No, it isn’t, that’s an incorrect assumption. The most popular meal in the UK is Chicken Tikka Masala.
Dandelion – can be used in salads:
Mexican Day of the Dead celebration on November 2nd
American vs British English quiz
Should doctors deny health care treatment for smokers and the obese?
Grammar – used to & would for past habits
Download Dictionary app from Google Play Store:
Body Mass Index: BMI