Food I hated as a child – Entry 1 Evening – class notes – 26th May 2016

Past simple exercises:


Today’s words:

  • lift noun (JOURNEY)

A2 [C usually singular] a free journey in another person’s vehicle, especially a car:I’ll give you a lift to the train station if you like.He hitched a lift (= stood by the road and made a signal asking acar to stop and take him) to Birmingham.
Relationship words:

widower noun [C]

a man whose wife or husband has died and who has not married again

widow noun [C]

B2 a woman whose husband or wife has died and who has not married again

  • mistress noun (PARTNER)

[C] a woman who is having a relationship with a married man:Edward VII and his mistress, Lillie Langtry

toy boy noun [C]

a young man who has a  romantic relationship with an older woman:Pam turned up at the party with her new toy boy.

trophy wife noun [C]

a young attractive woman who is married to a rich andsuccessful older man and acts as a symbol of his social position

  • affair noun [C] (RELATIONSHIP)

B2 a  relationship, especially a secret one: She’s having an affair with a married man.The book doesn’t make any mention of his love extramarital affair

Food I didn’t like when I was younger:



brussel sprouts:




Prawo Jazdy: Identity of Ireland’s most notorious driver uncovered – Level 2 class notes 24th May 2016

Quick test on today’s words here:


  1. Exam feedback and what you want to do next

  2. ADVANCED use of articles – slide show here

  3. Reading about Ireland’s “worst ever driver”.

  4. Discussion of possible trips – Lyme Park?

Information about articles:

Games to test your articles knowledge


BBC article about, “The mystery of Ireland’s worst driver.”

Daily Telegraph article about, “Prawo Jazdy: Identity of Ireland’s most notorious driver uncovered.”

Today’s words

  • cult noun (RELIGION)

[C] a religious group, often living together, whosebeliefs are considered extreme or strange by manypeople:Their son ran away from home and joined a religious cult.
[C] a particular system of religious belief:the Hindu cult of Shiva

cult adjective [before noun]

liked very much by a particular group of people:The singer had a cult following in the 1970s.a cult figure/movie

elude verb [T]

elude verb [T] (NOT ACHIEVE)

formal If something that you want eludes you, you do not succeed in achieving it:The gold medal continues to elude her.They had minor breakthroughs but real success eluded them.

amend verb [T]

C2 to change the words of a text, especially a law or a legaldocument:MPs were urged to amend the law to prevent another oil tankerdisaster.In line 20, “men” should be amended (= changed) topeople“.Until the constitution is amended, the power to appoint ministerswill remain with the president.

memo noun [C]

C1 a message or other information in writing sent by oneperson or department to another in the same businessorganization:Did you get my memo about the meeting?

  • rectify verb [T] (CORRECT)

C1 formal to correct something or make something right:I am determined to take whatever action is necessary to rectify the situation.Every effort is made to rectify any errors/mistakes before thebook is printed.
  • apprehension noun [U] (WORRY)

worry about the future, or a fear that somethingunpleasant is going to happen:It’s normal to feel a little apprehension before starting a new job.There is some apprehension in the office about who the newdirector will be.
  • apprehension noun [U] (CATCHING)

formal the situation in which the police catch and arrestsomeone who has not obeyed the law:Both the army and the police were involved in the apprehension of the terrorists.

apprehensive adjective

feeling worried about something that you are going to do or that is going to happen:I’m very apprehensive about tomorrow’s meeting.I’ve invited a lot of people to the party, but I’m a little apprehensive that no one will come.

villain noun

[C] a bad person who harms other people or breaks thelaw:Some people believe that Richard III was not the villain he isgenerally thought to have been.He’s either a hero or a villain, depending on your point of view.

[C] UK informal a criminal:Bert’s just a small-time villain.
[C] a character in a book, play, film, etc. who harmsother people:He made his reputation as an actor playing villains

dawdle verb [I]

to do something or go somewhere very slowly, taking more time than is necessary:Stop dawdling! You’ll be late for school!

definite adjective

B2 fixed, certain, or clear:The date for the meeting is now definite: 5 March .She has very definite opinions.We need a definite answer by tomorrow.“Are you sure I’m invited too?” “Yes, Dan was very definite aboutit on the phone.”There’s been a definite improvement in your English since you came here.

colleague noun [C]

A2 one of a group of people who work together:We’re entertaining some colleagues of Carol’s tonight.

expend iconexpend icon


herb noun [C]

B1 a type of plant whose leaves are used in cooking to giveflavour to particular dishes or in making medicine:dried/fresh herbsBasil, oregano, thyme, and rosemary are all herbs.A large range of herbs and spices are used in South Asiancooking.

An analogy between being a racing driver and a student in an exam – Level 2 class notes – 19th May 2016


  1. Write a story in the passive tense about Mark age 3 – eyebrow, blood, sister, a swing, next-door neighbour, stitches
  2. Group reading game
  3. Make questions from texts for other groups
  4. An analogy about taking an exam – you need to be like a Grand Prix driver – what qualities does a Grand Prix driver need to succeed?

analogy noun [C or U]

C2 a comparison between things that have similar features, often used to help explain a principle or idea:He drew an analogy between the brain and a vast computer.It is sometimes easier to illustrate an abstract concept by analogywith (= by comparing it with) something concrete.

Fast, careful, pay attention to detail, keep an eye on the time, don’t go too fast and crash!

Most importantly. You don’t want your heartbeat like this:



If you were to create a Time Capsule for 2016, what would you put in it? – Level 2 class notes – 17th May 2016

Homework – Future in the past:

Explanation of future in the past here:

USE 1 Future in Past

Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. “Would” is used to volunteer or promise, and “was going to” is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.


Class Objectives:

  1. Text features review & reported speech revision

  2. A Time Capsule – what would you pick to represent your life, your culture and 2016 for someone to open in 30 or 100 years time?

  3. Grammar – future in the past – It was meant to be; it was supposed to be; she was going to visit China, but she ran out of money.

  4. Wonders of the Universe

The Blue Peter Time Capsule

1971 – They buried it in the ground.

2000 – The old presenters and the new presenters dug it up:

Future in the past:

The XSeed 4000 is the tallest building ever fully envisioned, meaning that the designs for construction have been completed but it was never built. It was meant to be big enough to have an entire city inside.

Wonders of the Universe

Today’s words:

permanent adjective

B1 lasting for a long time or for ever:She is looking for a permanent place to stay.Are you looking for a temporary or a permanent job?The disease can cause permanent damage to the brain.A semi-permanent hair dye will wash out after about threemonths.He entered the United States in 1988 as a permanent residentbecause of his marriage to a U.S. citizen.

fundamental adjective

C2 forming the base, from which everything else develops:We need to make fundamental changes to the way in which we treat our environment.It’s one of the fundamental differences between men and women.The school is based on the fundamental principle that all childrenshould reach their full potential.Diversity is of fundamental importance to all ecosystems and alleconomies.

C2 more important than anything else:Some understanding of grammar is fundamental to learninga language.
  • reverse verb (CHANGE TO OPPOSITE)

C1 [T] to change the direction, order, position, result, etc. of something to its opposite:The new manager hoped to reverse the decline in the company’sfortunes.Now that you have a job and I don’t, our situations are reversed.The Court of Appeal reversed the earlier judgment.
  • reverse verb (DRIVE BACKWARDS)

B2 [I or T] to drive a vehicle backwards:He reversed into a lamppost and damaged the back of thecar.She reversed the car into the parking space.

pivot noun [C]

a fixed point supporting something that turns orbalances

the central or most important person or thing in asituation:The former guerrilla leader has become the pivot on which the country’s emerging political stability turns/revolves (= it dependson him).

dictate verb (GIVE ORDERS)

C1 [I or T] to give orders, or tell someone exactly what they must do, with total authority:The UN will dictate the terms of troop withdrawal from the region.[+ question word] He disagrees with the government dictatingwhat children are taught in schools.[+ that] The rules dictate that only running shoes must be wornon the track.
[T] to influence something or make it necessary:The party’s change of policy has been dictated by its need towin back younger voters.[+ that] I wanted to take a year off, but my financial situationdictated that I got a job.

dictate noun [C usually plural]

an order that should be obeyed, often one that you give to yourself:the dictates of conscience/common sense

  • dictate verb (SPEAK)

[I or T] to speak something aloud for a person ormachine to record what is said, so that it can be written down:I dictated my order over the phone.She spent the morning dictating letters to her secretary.

blood is thicker than water:

a timeline:

a butty: A Northern English slang word for a sandwich


Text Features & Revision – Level 2 Group 1 – 16th May 2016 – Class Notes


  1. Take a mock reading exam

  2. Revise text features

  3. Try an IELTS reading exam

  4. Discuss any other areas you want to look at before next week’s exam

  5. General Grammar Review here:

Text features overview here  + Quick knowledge test here

Read this:

then  take the test:

Very difficult – not for everyone!

QUICK Academic Reading Test:

1 Hour Academic Reading Test:

Today’s words:


Columns in text:

A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, aglossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized.



“The Surveillence Society” – passive voice & reported speech – Level 2 class notes – 12th May 2016

Homework tests:

Passive and active tense quizzes:

The passive voice (Simple past) 1 (B/I)
The passive voice (Simple past) 2 (B/I) NEW
The passive voice (S. present) 1 (I)
The passive voice (S. present) 2 (I)
The passive voice (Mixed) 1 (B)
The passive voice (Mixed) 2 (I)
The passive voice (Mixed) 3 (A)

Reported (Indirect) and Direct Speech:

Reported Speech (Mixed tenses) 1 (I)
Reported Speech (Mixed tenses) 2 (I)
Reported Speech (Mixed tenses) 3 (I)
Reported Speech (Mixed tenses) 4 (I)
Reported Speech (Commands) 1 (I)
Reported Speech (Commands) 2 (I)

Class Objectives:

1. Passive tense

2. Reported speech

3. CCTV and surveillence methods – positives & negatives

4. Finding grammar & spelling errors in a text

What is an error of agreement in a sentence?

Subject verb agreement: 

The general rule for pronoun agreement is straightforward: A singular antecedent requires a singular pronoun; a plural antecedent needs a plural pronoun.

More info here:

monitor verb [T]

C1 to watch and check a situation carefully for a period oftime in order to discover something about it:The new findings suggest that women ought to monitor theircholesterol levels.The CIA were monitoring (= secretly listening to) his phone calls.

  • monitor noun [C] (PERSON WHO WATCHES)

B2 a person who has the job of watching or noticingparticular things:United Nations monitors were not allowed to enter the area.

expend iconexpend iconMore examples

abide by something

phrasal verb with abide verb
to accept or obey an agreement, decision, rule, etc.:Competitors must abide by the judgesdecision.

accountable adjective

C2 Someone who is accountable is completely responsiblefor what they do and must be able to give a satisfactoryreason for it:She is accountable only to the managing director.The recent tax reforms have made government more accountablefor its spending.Politicians should be accountable to the public who elected them.

deterrent noun [C]

C2 something that deters people from doing something:a nuclear deterrentTougher prison sentences may act/serve as a deterrent to otherwould-be offenders.

expend iconexpend iconMore examples

surveillance noun [U]

the careful watching of a person or place, especially by the police or army, because of a crime that hashappened or is expected:The police have kept the nightclub under surveillance because ofsuspected illegal drug activity.More banks are now installing surveillance cameras.


abbreviation for closed-circuit television : a system thatsends television signals to a limited number of screens, and is often used in shops and public places to preventcrime:CCTV camerasThe whole incident was captured on CCTV.

The pitch was soaked:

Kickstarter – how easily can you invent something brilliant, useful and original? – Entry 3 Group 2 – class notes – 11th May 2016

Tests for homework:

  3. Lots of grammar exercises here

Lesson Objectives

  1. Today – for one day only: two for the price of one. Like at your local supermarket; but today we have 2 classes for the price of one.

  2. Creating an alphabet of Comparatives, Superlatives, Adjectives, Nouns & Adverbs

  3. Salford then and now. Looking at Salford Quays where Group 2 will be visiting The Lowry & The Imperial War Museum North next week

  4. Sanjay Dastoor: A skateboard, with a boost

  5. Adverbs review

  6. Create a Kickstarter project

Boosted Boards – TED Talk by Sanjay Dastoor: A skateboard, with a boost

First it was an idea, now it’s a business!

Raising money with Kickstarter

More examples : An easy to adapt Electric Bike: read more here

AiraWear – The World’s First Massaging Hoodie

AiraWear – Kickstarter page here

The first pants that makes sweatpants unnecessary by Christoffer Bak …

Think about what you could create and how you make your first million dollars doing it.

But first you will need to use comparatives, superlatives and adverbs to describe your product.

Part One:

Introduction and Discussion Discuss the following questions

• Do you think that skateboarding is a good form of transport? Why/why not?

• Can you think of any other types of lightweight, easy to use methods?

• Do you think it is important to create new types of transport? Why/why not?

Today’s words:


B1 working or operating quickly and effectively in anorganized way:The city’s transport system is one of the most efficient in Europe.We need someone really efficient who can organize the office and make it run smoothly.

expend icon

zestful adjective

full of energy and enthusiasm:Her zestful performance made the film very successful.They symbolized zestful youth.

portable – easy to carry – portable TV:




Writing a personal statement – Level 2 Group 1 – class notes – 9th May 2016


  1. Level 2 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Health and Safety

  2. Level 2 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Me and My Community


  4. If you get a pass mark of 68% or more in your exam practice move on to 3. If not go straight to 9……….

  5. Decide what you want to do in September

  6. Write a personal statement on paper

  7. Type up, rewrite your personal statement.

  8. Copy your statement into a Word document. Save it. Grammar check and spellcheck it.

  9. Use a thesaurus to make your language more varied and interesting.

  10. Get a friend to read it. Does it make sense? Get your teacher to read it.

  11. Or just do more exam practice!

Personal Statements By Subject on – all of our personal statement examples can be browsed below in alphabetical order by subject. Hopefully these will provide you with inspiration for writing your own statement, but please do not plagiarism them or UCAS will penalise your application.

What makes you stand out from the crowd?

Today’s words:

enthusiasm noun

B2 [U] a feeling of energetic interest in a particular subjector activity and an eagerness to be involved in it:One of the good things about teaching young children is theirenthusiasm.After the accident he lost his enthusiasm for the sport.I just can’t work up (= start to feel) any enthusiasm for the wholeproject.

[C] a subject or activity that interests you very much:One of his greatest enthusiasms was yoga.


Are you smarter than a 10 year old? – Level 2 Class notes – 5th May 2016


  1. Wungles & shrills – using nonsense words to identify word type and possible replacement words.

  2. “Whose Line Is It Anyway?” – improvisation to practice tone (and acting skills)

  3. Spelling test!

  4. Hoola-hoop commas

  5. Are you smarter than a 10 year old? Key Stage 2 – English grammar, punctuation and spelling

Today’s words:

An intransitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit, die, etc. Second, unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving the action.
Related topics
Intransitive verbs are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, the do not have an objectreceiving the action.
An intransitive verb is simple defined as a verb that does not take a direct
Explore: Object
Transitivity is distinguished by different verbs for transitive and intransitive, eg ratkaista “to solve something” vs. ratketa “to solve by itself”. Wikipedia
A transitive verb is a verb that can take a direct object. In other words, it is done to someone or something. Most verbs are transitive. Atransitive verb contrasts with an intransitive verb.

What Are Transitive Verbs? (grammar lesson) – Grammar Monster
Related topics
Intransitive verbs are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, the do not have an objectreceiving the action.
Transitive verbs are action verbs that require a direct
Explore: Object
Transitive verbs . . . in the active voice are conjugated with the verb avoir. Wikipedia

overly adverb

too; very:Earlier sales forecasts were overly optimistic.His films have been criticized for being overly violent.

anecdotal adjective

Anecdotal information is not based on facts or carefulstudy:anecdotal evidence

improvisation noun [C or U]

a performance that an actor, musician, etc. has notpractised or planned:a blues/jazz improvisationThere are classes in movement, dance, and improvisation.

the act of making or doing something with whatever isavailable at the time:I’m afraid we don’t have all the necessary equipment, so a little improvisation might be required.
Commas with DatesWhen a date is made up of two or more parts, use a comma to separate the parts when the parts both are words or both are numbers. A second comma follows the last item unless it is at the end of a list or sentence.

Incorrect: We will meet Friday July 15.
(Word Friday followed by another word, July–comma needed)Correct: We will meet Friday, July 15.

Incorrect: October 31, 1517 is one of the most significant dates in history.
(The comma between the two numbers is OK, but a second comma is needed after the last item, 1517.)

Correct: October 31, 1517, is one of the most significant dates in history.

Incorrect: October, 1517, was a major month in history.
(No commas needed because word October is followed by a number, 1517.)

Correct: October 1517 was a major month in history.

If the parts of the date are connected by a preposition, no comma is needed.

Incorrect: On a Sunday, in December 1941, the U.S. found itself in World War II.
(No comma needed since the preposition in is there.)Correct: On a Sunday in December 1941, the U.S. found itself in World War II.