The difference between the verbs ‘to compare’ and ‘to contrast’ seems to have caused some heated debate. Probably more than it should. I’m not sure why. Perhaps it’s the perenial potato debate. Which do you prefer? Sweet potatoes or old fashioned regular potatoes? Or how about yams? Surely a discussion about potatoes couldn’t cause so much argument, could it?
Let’s look at the meaning of ‘to contrast’ first because it’s easier to understand:
C2 [ I ]If one thing contrasts with another, it is very different from it:
So the potatoes are rounder, and obviously, the sweet potatoes are ummm sweeter. I’m not doing very well here….
Cleveland Health Clinic explain that, “Sweet potatoes provide 400% of your daily requirement of vitamin A. They also have more vitamin C, fewer calories, more fibre and fewer total carbs than white potatoes, despite more sugar. But don’t forget white potatoes — they’re more versatile in cooking and less expensive.“
So that’s the contrast sorted. Fine. We’re happy with that. One is usually white the other is usually orange. Contrast! Easy… So, to compare:
But – we also use ‘to compare’ – to talk about similarities and to decide which thing is better. We can make chips out of potatoes and sweet potatoes; the taste is different but overall I prefer regular potatoes:
compare verb [ T ] (CONSIDER SIMILARITIES)
does not compare
If something or someone does not compare with something or someone else, the second thing is very much better than the first:
Here are a bunch of question types that have turned up on the C&G Reading exam paper. The sort of questions you can expect to see in the exam.
- What is the meaning of the word flubalub… ? Use. See – using context clues – https://macmillanmh.com/ccssreading/treasures/grade6/ccslh_g6_lv_8_3b.html
In the context of the text what does flubalub… mean in the text? – use the dictionary BUT DON’T JUST READ THE 1ST MEANING – words mean different things. The examining board are trying to test you (obviously!)
- What is the purpose of the document? See – https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/zqx8hv4/revision
- What is the key theme/focus of the last paragraph? The key point of the paragraph is … ‘The writer highlights the impact of … : See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z398d2p/revision
- Which textual features are used in this text? See – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mAl9QMJJTo
- What is an appropriate heading for the 3rd paragraph? What is an appropriate title for the text? See – http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html
In order to do this type of task well you must understand the gist, or main ideas, of each paragraph. These tips will help you do this task well.
- First read all of the headings.
- Then read the paragraphs carefully and match the ones you are sure about.
- If you are not sure about one, leave it and move on to the next one. You may be able to match up ones you are not sure about by elimination at the end.
- Be careful with extra options, e.g. six headings to match with four paragraphs. There will be two headings you don’t need.
- The final paragraph has been written in 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular/plural? See – http://study.com/academy/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person.html#lesson
- The register/tone of the text is? / The language in the text is (Formal, polite, facetious, technical) See – https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
- What is the perspective of the author? See – https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?4y393q0w5n5i & http://www.mpsaz.org/rmre/grades/grade5/homework_help/files/authors_purpose_and_perspective2.pdf
- What discourse markers are used in this text? See – http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/discourse-markers/discourse-markers-so-right-okay
- Why is there a paragraph break between 3 and 4? See – http://www.saidsimple.com/content/100835/
- Text type – see – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z97mxnb/revision
- The content of the text is: biased, factual, fictional, first hand, detached. See – Objective information does not vary, whereas subjective information can vary greatly from person to person or day to day. Subjectivity can actually be wrong, or far from the truth, whereas objectivity means being as close to the truth as possible.12 Jun 2014
Search for: What does it mean to be objective
- Inverted commas/speechmarks, commas, apostrophes. See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/english/spelling_grammar/punctuation/read/1/ & http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zqsyvcw/revision/4
- Colons & semi-colons http://www.colonsemicolon.com/
- What does you/it/he refer to? See – https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns
|Purpose of text questions:
to show how/why
|Type of text questions:
Leaflet (information or advertisement)
Set of instructions
Article (any published text)
Sign (danger/road/shop/school etc… can be an image too!)
Guide (travel, tourist, grammar…)
Reference book (dictionary, atlas, thesaurus)
|Questions about images:
Sign (can also be a type of text)
|Features of text:
Bullet points Block capitals
Images (see above) Internet links/web icon
Text box Bold text
A) Check out these PowerPoint links for a full explanation of the many difficulties with Subject-Verb agreement. If this is easy, then you’re doing pretty well, my friend:
Subject–Verb Agreement. Do I need an s at the end of the verb? Or should I leave the s off? This presentation covers maintaining agreement between subjects …
Subject–Verb Agreement. A Project LA Activity. Basic Rule. Singular subjects need singular verbs. Plural subjects need plural verbs. These create problems:.
B) Advanced level videos:
Subject verb agreement BBC English explanation parts 1, 2 & 3. Listen with subtitles and watch more than once if that helps:
subscribe for more excellent and complex language advice:
C) Now try some Subject-Verb agreement online exercises:
After each sentence select the verb form that will best fit in the blank. The explanation will describe the process of arriving at the correct choice for that sentence.
Read the sentences to decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. Then click the drop-down menu. answer. to see the answer.
Subject–verb agreement is one of the first things you learn in English class: “My friend is Japanese.” (singular). “My friends are Japanese.” (plural). In this English …
Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise. Look at each sentence and think about subject/verb agreement. Which is the correct answer?
An advanced English-language quiz on subject–verb agreement.
Whether you’re a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these … topic: SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH 1 | level:Advanced Choose …
2nd Conditional warmers – could & would
How can we be happier?
Will money make you happier? What is work/life balance?
What could you live without?
Find out definitions for these words: freeganism, forage & road kill.
Read about a life without money.
Work in groups to come up with ideas to make life happier.
The Happiness Formula
Complete these sentences and be ready to explain why you are saying this
a) Happiness is …….
b) Money can’t make you happy …
What is the Rat Race? Is it possible to escape it?
disapproving the situation in which too much attention is given to buying and owning things:
Black Friday is coming soon – this was the scene in London 2 years ago:
Are these statements true or false:
People are wealthier and happier than 50 years ago.
Consumerism hasn’t made people happy.
Scientists think we should change our way of life
Watch the video and think about these questions:
A) Why hasn’t consumerism (the work+buy ethic) made people happy?
B) How should we change our way of life?
Life without money
Could you live without money? Think of 3 advantages of a life without money.
Look up these three words on your phone: 1. Road kill (noun) 2. to forage (verb) 3. freegan & freeganism
Article in The Independent about a German woman living without money
Listen to an English podcast about the German woman Heidemarie Schwermer who made a deliberate choice to live without money 14 years ago.
Present perfect revision exercises:
The two words, hung vs. hanged, are both the past tense of hang but have different uses in a sentence. Hanged refers to death by hanging, whether it be suicide or execution.
the amount of respect, admiration, or importancegiven to a person, organization, or object:
on secondment Next month Douglas, who has been on secondment from BT, goes back to his old job.
I assume fish and chips is the most popular meal in Britain. No, it isn’t, that’s an incorrect assumption. The most popular meal in the UK is Chicken Tikka Masala.
Dandelion – can be used in salads:
American vs British English warmer
Vocabulary review from before half term
National news: the child refugees in Calais
The history of Venice
Francesco’s Venice video & listening
Listening to a woman talk about a family heirloom
Writing about an object of significance for you
1. American English quizzes (just for fun):
2. Vocabulary review – take a test here – it’s very difficult!!!
here is the test: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/mydictionary/wordlist/1250156/test
3. You need to start reading and understanding more about International and National news. Read about the child refugees in Calais and try to understand the different points of view. Think about opinions and facts:
here in the Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3850840/Third-batch-child-migrants-begin-journey-Calais-Jungle-UK-Home-Office-admit-two-thirds-past-children-lied-age-officials.html
here in the Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/oct/28/fears-for-calais-refugee-camp-children-who-were-bound-for-the-uk
here on the BBC website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37654552
4. The history of Venice:
more information here:http://tours-italy.com/venice-tours/venice-travel-guide/history/
5. Francesco’s Venice:
6. A gramophone:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/mydictionary/wordlist/1762906 – including bequeath & ancestor.
Take a mock reading exam
Revise text features
Try an IELTS reading exam
Discuss any other areas you want to look at before next week’s exam
Columns in text:
A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, aglossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized.
Decoding meaning. Activity based around the use of words in text to influence meaning.
Finding information Activity about using organisational features in text to aid reading.
Identifying main points Activity about identifying the main points of a text using sub-headings and careful reading.