Compare & Contrast – Things we find difficult – part 3

The difference between the verbs ‘to compare’ and ‘to contrast’ seems to have caused some heated debate. Probably more than it should. I’m not sure why. Perhaps it’s the perenial potato debate. Which do you prefer? Sweet potatoes or old fashioned regular potatoes? Or how about yams? Surely a discussion about potatoes couldn’t cause so much argument, could it?

Let’s look at the meaning of ‘to contrast’ first because it’s easier to understand:

contrast verb

C2 [ T ]to compare two people or things in order to show thedifferences between them:

If you contrast some of her early writing with her later work, you can see just how much she improved.

 

C2 [ I ]If one thing contrasts with another, it is very different from it:

The styles of the two film makers contrast quite dramatically.
The tartness of the lemons contrasts with the sweetness of the honey.
So the potatoes are rounder, and obviously, the sweet potatoes are ummm sweeter. I’m not doing very well here….
Cleveland Health Clinic explain that, “Sweet potatoes provide 400% of your daily requirement of vitamin A. They also have more vitamin C, fewer calories, more fibre and fewer total carbs than white potatoes, despite more sugar. But don’t forget white potatoes — they’re more versatile in cooking and less expensive.
So that’s the contrast sorted. Fine. We’re happy with that. One is usually white the other is usually orange. Contrast! Easy… So, to compare:

compare verb [ T ] (EXAMINE DIFFERENCES)

B1 to examine or look for the difference between two or more things:

If you compare house prices in the two areas, it’s quite amazing how different they are.
That seems expensive – have you compared prices in other shops?
Compare some recent work with your older stuff and you’ll see how much you’ve improved.
This road is quite busy compared to/with ours
But – we also use ‘to compare’ – to talk about similarities and to decide which thing is better. We can make chips out of potatoes and sweet potatoes; the taste is different but overall I prefer regular potatoes:

compare verb [ T ] (CONSIDER SIMILARITIES)

to judge, suggest, or consider that something is similar or of equal quality to something else:

The poet compares his lover’s tongue to a razor blade.
Still only 25, she has been compared to the greatest dancer of all time.
People compared her to Elizabeth Taylor.
You can’t compare the two cities – they’re totally different.

does not compare

 

If something or someone does not compare with something or someone else, the second thing is very much better than the first:

Instant coffee just doesn’t compare with freshly ground coffee.

compare favourably

 

If something compares favourably with something else, it is better than it:

The hotel certainly compared favourably with the one we stayed in last year.

Level 1 & 2 – Last minute Reading exam revision crib sheet

Here are a bunch of question types that have turned up on the C&G Reading exam paper. The sort of questions you can expect to see in the exam.

  1. What is the meaning of the word flubalub… ? Use. See – using context clues – https://macmillanmh.com/ccssreading/treasures/grade6/ccslh_g6_lv_8_3b.html

In the context of the text what does flubalub… mean in the text? – use the dictionary BUT DON’T JUST READ THE 1ST MEANING – words mean different things. The examining board are trying to test you (obviously!)

  1. What is the purpose of the document? See – https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/zqx8hv4/revision
  2. What is the key theme/focus of the last paragraph? The key point of the paragraph is … ‘The writer highlights the impact of … : See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z398d2p/revision
  3. Which textual features are used in this text? See – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mAl9QMJJTo
  4. What is an appropriate heading for the 3rd paragraph? What is an appropriate title for the text? See – http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html

In order to do this type of task well you must understand the gist, or main ideas, of each paragraph. These tips will help you do this task well.

  • First read all of the headings.
  • Then read the paragraphs carefully and match the ones you are sure about.
  • If you are not sure about one, leave it and move on to the next one. You may be able to match up ones you are not sure about by elimination at the end.
  • Be careful with extra options, e.g. six headings to match with four paragraphs. There will be two headings you don’t need.
  1. The final paragraph has been written in 1st, 2nd, 3rd singular/plural? See – http://study.com/academy/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person.html#lesson
  2. The register/tone of the text is? / The language in the text is (Formal, polite, facetious, technical) See – https://writerswrite.co.za/155-words-to-describe-an-authors-tone/
  3. What is the perspective of the author? See – https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?4y393q0w5n5i & http://www.mpsaz.org/rmre/grades/grade5/homework_help/files/authors_purpose_and_perspective2.pdf
  4. What discourse markers are used in this text? See – http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/discourse-markers/discourse-markers-so-right-okay
  5. Why is there a paragraph break between 3 and 4? See – http://www.saidsimple.com/content/100835/
  6. Text type – see – http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z97mxnb/revision
  7. The content of the text is: biased, factual, fictional, first hand, detached. See – Objective information does not vary, whereas subjective information can vary greatly from person to person or day to day. Subjectivity can actually be wrong, or far from the truth, whereas objectivity means being as close to the truth as possible.12 Jun 2014

Objective vs Subjective Writing: Understanding the Difference

https://blog.udemy.com/objective-vs-subjective/

Search for: What does it mean to be objective

  1. Inverted commas/speechmarks, commas, apostrophes. See – http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/english/spelling_grammar/punctuation/read/1/ & http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zqsyvcw/revision/4
  2. Colons & semi-colons   http://www.colonsemicolon.com/
  3. What does you/it/he refer to? See – https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns
Purpose of text questions:

describe

advertise

explain

persuade

enterain

inform

instruct

advertise

entertain

warn

sell

show

give instructions/advice

offer help/advice

to show how/why

 

Type of text questions:

Letter (formal/informal)

Leaflet (information or advertisement)

Pamphlet

Set of instructions

Email (formal/informal)

Poster

Advertisement

Text message

Article (any published text)

Timetable

Invitation

Webpage

Sign (danger/road/shop/school etc… can be an image too!)

Certificate

Form

Guide (travel, tourist, grammar…)

Reference book (dictionary, atlas, thesaurus)

Questions about images:

Logo

Sign (can also be a type of text)

Diagram

Photograph

Graph

Illustration

Drawing

 

Language questions:

Scientific

Descriptive

Instructive

Persuasive

Informative

Informal

Formal

Humorous

Aggressive

Features of text:

Bullet points                 Block capitals

Images (see above)     Internet links/web icon

Text box                        Bold text

Columns                       Italics

Headings                     Subheadings

Numbers                     Captions

Things we find difficult to understand – part 2 – collective nouns

collective noun  [ C ]

a noun that describes a group of things or people as a unit:

“Family” and “flock” are examples of collective nouns.
Collective nouns are often very peculiar and very particular. You don’t need to know them all (most people don’t), but they are fun to know and make for excellent conversation starters if you’re a language geek!

A) Check out these lists of collective nouns on buzzle.com  then try the online tests:

B) Collective nouns – online tests:

Collective nouns, English skills online, interactive activity lessons

Abstract nouns. Collective nouns. Apostrophes – possession (Common and proper nouns). L.1.1.c – Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic …

Subject-verb agreement with collective nouns – Quizzes – Language …

Does a singular collective noun take a singular or plural verb? Well, it depends. If the collective noun refers to the group as a unit, then it takes a singular verb.

Collective Noun Quiz – ProProfs Quiz

This quiz was created for beginner ESL learners studying collective nouns.

Quiz: Collective Nouns – CliffsNotes

Choose the TRUE statement. Collective nouns are always singular.Collective nouns may function as verbs. Collective nouns may be singular or plural. Previous.

collective nouns 1 – Englishleap.com

COLLECTIVE NOUNS EXERCISE 1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION: … Related Exercises. Auxiliary Verbs Exercise – 1 · Collective Nouns Exercise – 2.

Things we find difficult to understand – part 1 – Subject-Verb agreement in sentences

A) Check out these PowerPoint links for a full explanation of the many difficulties with Subject-Verb agreement. If this is easy, then you’re doing pretty well, my friend:

[PPT]Subject – Verb Agreement PPT – Grammar Bytes!

SubjectVerb Agreement. Do I need an s at the end of the verb? Or should I leave the s off? This presentation covers maintaining agreement between subjects …

[PPT]Subject and Verb Agreement

SubjectVerb Agreement. A Project LA Activity. Basic Rule. Singular subjects need singular verbs. Plural subjects need plural verbs. These create problems:.

B) Advanced level videos:

Subject verb agreement BBC English explanation parts 1, 2 & 3. Listen with subtitles and watch more than once if that helps:

subscribe for more excellent and complex language advice:

bbclearningenglish bbclearningenglish

C) Now try some Subject-Verb agreement online exercises:

A SECOND QUIZ ON SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

After each sentence select the verb form that will best fit in the blank. The explanation will describe the process of arriving at the correct choice for that sentence.

Subject Verb Agreement Quiz

Read the sentences to decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. Then click the drop-down menu. answer. to see the answer.

ESL Quiz – Subject-Verb Agreement (Difficult) (Keith S. Folse) I-TESL-J

ESL Quiz – SubjectVerb Agreement (Difficult) (Keith S. Folse) I-TESL-J … This quiz is part of Interactive JavaScript Quizzes for ESL Students. Quiz Data …
Subjectverb agreement is one of the first things you learn in English class: “My friend is Japanese.” (singular). “My friends are Japanese.” (plural). In this English …

Advanced Grammar | Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise | esl-lounge …

Subject / Verb Agreement Exercise. Look at each sentence and think about subject/verb agreement. Which is the correct answer?

Subject-Verb Agreement: Advanced – Quizzes – Language Portal of …

An advanced English-language quiz on subjectverb agreement.
Whether you’re a native speaker of English or an advanced ESL student, these … topic: SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH 1 | level:Advanced Choose …

Is it time to escape the rat race? Level 2 – 17th November 2016

Objectives:

  1. 2nd Conditional warmers – could & would

  2. How can we be happier?

  3. Will money make you happier? What is work/life balance?

  4. What could you live without?

  5. Find out definitions for these words: freeganism, forage & road kill.

  6. Read about a life without money.

  7. Work in groups to come up with ideas to make life happier.

The 2nd Conditional explained

The Happiness Formula

Complete these sentences and be ready to explain why you are saying this

a) Happiness is …….

b) Money can’t make you happy …

What is the Rat Race? Is it possible to escape it?

consumerism noun [ U ]

politics the state of an advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are bought and sold

disapproving the situation in which too much attention is given to buying and owning things:

He disliked Christmas and its rampant (= extreme) consumerism.
Black Friday is coming soon – this was the scene in London 2 years ago:

Are these statements true or false:

  1. People are wealthier and happier than 50 years ago.

  2. Consumerism hasn’t made people happy.

  3. Scientists think we should change our way of life

Watch the video and think about these questions:

A) Why hasn’t consumerism (the work+buy ethic) made people happy?

B) How should we change our way of life?

Life without money

Could you live without money? Think of 3 advantages of a life without money.

 

Look up these three words on your phone: 1. Road kill (noun) 2. to forage (verb) 3. freegan & freeganism

road kill noun [ U ]

animals that are killed on roadsby cars or other vehicles:

On average, two crocodiles a yearend up as road kill on Florida’s Highway 1.
Foraging:

forage verb [ I ]

to go from place to placesearching, especially for food:

The children had been living on the streets, foraging for scraps.
The pigs foraged in the woods for acorns.
Freeganism:
Image result for freegan

freegan noun [ C ]

a person who chooses to eatfood that is not bought from a shop, especially food that other people, shops, or organizationsthrow away, so that food is not wasted

Article in The Independent about a German woman living without money

Listen to an English podcast about the German woman Heidemarie Schwermer who made a deliberate choice to live without money 14 years ago.

Present perfect revision exercises:

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html

http://www.englishhints.com/irregular-verbs.html

http://www.iswearenglish.com/100series.php?id=7

http://www.englishpage.com/irregularverbs/irregularverbs.html#l

Today’s words:

The two words, hung vs. hanged, are both the past tense of hang but have different uses in a sentence. Hanged refers to death by hanging, whether it be suicide or execution.

the amount of respect, admiration, or importancegiven to a person, organization, or object:

high/low status
As the daughter of the president, she enjoys high status among her peers.
The leaders were often more concerned with status and privilegethan with the problems of the people.

designer label noun [ C ]

UK US MARKETING, COMMERCE

a famous company that makes expensive clothes, bags, etc. and that is a well-known brand:

Our aim is to make this one of the world’s great designer labels.

secondment noun [ C or U ]

a period of time when an employee is sent to worksomewhere else temporarily, either to increase the numberof workers there, to replace a worker, or to exchangeexperiences and skills:

secondment to/from sth My last post in the probation service was a secondment to Bristol Prison.
on secondment Next month Douglas, who has been on secondment from BT, goes back to his old job.

shadow noun (FOLLOW)

[ C ] someone who followsanother person everywhere:

“I think we have a shadow on our tail,” muttered the detective.
Ever since he was able to walk, Stephen has been his older brother’s shadow (= has followed him and copied his actions).

[ C ] uk a person who follows someone else while they are at work in order to learn about that person’s job

commuter noun [ C ]

someone who regularly travels between work and home:

The train was packed with commuters.

assumption noun (BELIEF)

C1 [ C ] something that you accept as true without questionor proof:

People tend to make assumptions about you when you have a disability.
These calculations are based on the assumption that prices will continue to rise.

I assume fish and chips is the most popular meal in Britain. No, it isn’t, that’s an incorrect assumption. The most popular meal in the UK is Chicken Tikka Masala.

diminish verb [ I or T ]

C1 to reduce or be reduced in size or importance:

I don’t want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help.
These memories will not be diminished by time.
What he did has seriously diminished him in many people’s eyes.
We’ve seen our house diminish greatly/sharply/substantially in value over the last six months.

barter verb [ I or T ]

to exchange goods for other things rather than for money:

He bartered his stamp collection forher comics.
We spent a whole hour bartering withstallholders for souvenirs.

miser noun [ C ]

 Dandelion – can be used in salads:
Image result for picking dandelions
Image result for picking nettles
Wild garlic
Image result for picking wild garlic
Idioms:

What have your ancestors bequeathed to you? – Level 2 – 31st October 2016

Objectives

  1. American vs British English warmer

  2. Vocabulary review from before half term

  3. National news: the child refugees in Calais

  4. The history of Venice

  5. Francesco’s Venice video & listening

  6. Listening to a woman talk about a family heirloom

  7. Writing about an object of significance for you

1. American English quizzes (just for fun):

http://esl.about.com/qz/British-or-American-Quiz

http://www.funtrivia.com/playquiz/quiz113979d0e8b0.html

2. Vocabulary review – take a test here – it’s  very difficult!!!

here is the list: Level 2 October 2016 words

here is the test: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/mydictionary/wordlist/1250156/test

3. You need to start reading and understanding more about International and National news. Read about the child refugees in Calais and try to understand the different points of view. Think about opinions and facts:

here in the Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3850840/Third-batch-child-migrants-begin-journey-Calais-Jungle-UK-Home-Office-admit-two-thirds-past-children-lied-age-officials.html 

here in the Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/oct/28/fears-for-calais-refugee-camp-children-who-were-bound-for-the-uk

here on the BBC website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37654552

4. The history of Venice:

more information here:http://tours-italy.com/venice-tours/venice-travel-guide/history/

5. Francesco’s Venice:

6. A gramophone:

Today’s words:

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/mydictionary/wordlist/1762906 – including bequeath & ancestor.

 

 

Text Features & Revision – Level 2 Group 1 – 16th May 2016 – Class Notes

Objectives:

  1. Take a mock reading exam

  2. Revise text features

  3. Try an IELTS reading exam

  4. Discuss any other areas you want to look at before next week’s exam

  5. General Grammar Review here: https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar

Text features overview here  + Quick knowledge test here

https://www.thatquiz.org/tq/practicetest?lz3jb1txek6i

Read this: https://quizlet.com/13291247/nonfiction-text-features-quiz-flash-cards/

then  take the test: https://quizlet.com/13291247/test

http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/quizshow.php?title=nonfiction-text-features&q=1

Very difficult – not for everyone! https://www.quia.com/quiz/1991762.html?AP_rand=847094395

QUICK Academic Reading Test: http://www.english-online.org.uk/ieltsfolder/readac3.php?name=Academic%20Reading%203&fun=startReadRequest()&spt=readac3

1 Hour Academic Reading Test: http://www.english-online.org.uk/ieltsfolder/readac1.php?name=Academic%20Reading%201&fun=startReadRequest()&spt=readac1

Today’s words:

diagram:

Columns in text:

A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, aglossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized.

 

 

Exam practice!!! Level 1 & Level 2 class

Level 1 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Health and Safety

Level 1 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Me and My Community

Level 1 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Creativity 

 

Level 2 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Me and My Community

Level 2 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Creativity

Level 2 ESOL Skills for Life Reading – sample onscreen test – Health and Safety v2

Take a Level 1 & 2 Reading test: EdExcel tests here

https://www.easyenglish.com/tests.asp  – choose medium or difficult

Decoding meaning. Activity based around the use of words in text to influence meaning.

Finding information Activity about using organisational features in text to aid reading.

Identifying main points Activity about identifying the main points of a text using sub-headings and careful reading.

http://xtlearn.net/NLN