Using while and whereas
Although the conjunctions while and whereas have similar uses, there are some differences too. While, for example, can be used to introduce a time-clause. Whereas cannot be used to introduce a time-clause.
Stating Cause and Effect
|CAUSE — EFFECT|
|Consequently (adverb) and as a result (prepositional phrase) are connectives that transition the reader from the idea expressed in one clause to the idea expressed in the next clause. These connectives are followed by a clause expressing the effect of situation stated in the clause before it. A comma separates the adverb from the clause.|
|EFFECT — CAUSE|
|Because (since, as, though) and because of (due to, on account of) are connective prepositions that relate additional, nonessential information to the main clause. Because is complemented by a clause and because of is complemented by a noun phrase (NP) that states a reason (cause) for the effect stated in the main clause. – read more here|
Linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. In this lesson, you’ll learn some common linking words to express reasons and results.
Linking Words: Reasons
Because / Because of – read more here
You can use the following transitions instead of “So”:
Therefore / Consequently / As a Result / Thus / For this reason
**Note: When you start a sentence with these words, you need to put a comma after them. read more here
More about despite & in spite of: From Rob’s English blog:
Grammar Tip 9: despite/in spite of/even though
Despite the heavy weather, the barbecue went ahead.
In spite of the heavy weather, the barbecue went ahead.
‘Despite’ is much more commonly used, especially at the start of a sentence.
Also possible here is ‘regardless of’ and (for those formal occasions) ‘notwithstanding’ .
Remember that both ‘despite’ and ‘in spite of’ can also be used with a gerund (-ing):
Despite reading the whole night, I did not finish the book.
In spite of reading the whole night, I did not finish the book.
Once again, ‘despite’ is more commonly used.
Do not use a subject pronoun – I, you, he, she – and a verb straight after these words. Instead, switch to ‘even though’:
Even though I read the whole night, I did not finish the book.
Even though the weather was heavy, the barbecue went ahead.
notwithstanding preposition, adverb