Level 2 Group 2 – class notes – 25rd November 2015


  1. Learn more about phrasal verbs

  2. play phrasal verbs naughts and crosses

  3. play online phrasal verb games: http://www.stuff.co.uk/phrasal.htmhttp://a4esl.org/q/j/ck/fb-phrasalverbs.html

  4. Phrasal verbs prezi

  5. Today’s topic – Social media & the traditional media

  6. Presentation about Nigeria by Francis

Nigerian food & plantain:


Today’s words:

hoax noun [C]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

a ​plan to ​deceive someone, such as ​telling the ​police there is a ​bombsomewhere when there is not one, or a ​trick:The ​bombthreatturned out to be a hoax.He’d made a hoax callclaiming to be the ​president.

hoax verb [T]

UK   /həʊks/  US   /hoʊks/

Francis asks, why is ‘everyone’ a singular noun?

everybody / everyone / everything

It is true that everybody and everyone refers to everybody and everyone in a group of people and everything refers to everything ina group of things. Even so, they are still perceived individually or as a totality, so the singular verb form is still maintained:

  • Is everybody happy with that? Does everyone understand my position?
  • Everything she owns has been stolen.

Everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere are indefinite pronouns.

We use them to refer to a total number of people, things and places. We write them as one word:

His name was Henry but everyone called him Harry.

All your clothes are clean. I washed everything yesterday.

The sand got everywhere, into eyes, hair, tents, cups of tea, camera lenses.

We use everyone, everybody, everything and everywhere with singular verbs:

Everybody knows the truth.

At night, with the lights shining on the water, everything looks different.

We couldn’t get a seat. Everywhere was so crowded.

aggravate verb [T] (MAKE WORSE)

to make a ​badsituationworse:Attempts to ​restrictparking in the ​citycentre have ​furtheraggravated the ​problem of ​trafficcongestion. to make a ​diseaseworse:The ​treatment only aggravated the ​condition.

aggravate verb [T] (ANNOY)

informal to ​annoy someone:Stop aggravating me, will you!

escalate verb [I or T]

UK   US   /ˈes.kə.leɪt/

to ​become or make something ​becomegreater or more ​serious:His ​financialproblems escalated after he ​becameunemployed.The ​decision to escalate UN ​involvement has been made in the ​hopes of a ​swift end to the ​hostilities.The escalating ​rate of ​inflation will ​almostcertainlybring escalating ​prices.

exaggerate verb [I or T]

UK   /ɪɡˈzædʒ.ə.reɪt/  US   /-ɚ.eɪt/

C1 to make something ​seemlarger, more ​important, ​better, or ​worse than it really is:The ​threat of ​attack has been greatly exaggerated.Don’t exaggerate – it wasn’t that ​expensive.I’m not exaggerating – it was the ​worstmeal I’ve ​evereaten in my ​life.

anonymous adjective

UK   /əˈnɒn.ɪ.məs/  US   /-ˈnɑː.nə-/

C2 made or done by someone whose ​name is not ​known or not made ​public:The ​money was ​donated by an anonymous benefactor.Police said an anonymous callerwarned that a ​bomb was about to go off.An ​attempt to ​implant an ​embryo using an ​egg from an anonymous woman donor was ​unsuccessful.He ​received an anonymous letterthreatening to ​disclosedetails of his ​affair if he didn’t ​pay the ​money.For ​reasons of ​personalsafety, the ​informantwishes to remainanonymous.

reliable adjective

UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪə.bl̩/

B1 Someone or something that is reliable can be ​trusted or ​believed because he, she, or it ​works or ​behaves well in the way you ​expect:Is ​yourwatch reliable?reliable ​informationGideon is very reliable – if he says he’ll do something, he’ll do it.

rely on/upon sb/sth

phrasal verb with rely UK   US   /rɪˈlaɪ/ verb

B2 to need a ​particular thing or the ​help and ​support of someone or something in ​order to ​continue, to ​workcorrectly, or to ​succeed:[+ -ing verb] The ​success of this ​project relies on everyone makingan ​effort.I rely on you for good ​advice.[+ to infinitive] I’m relying on the ​garage tofix the ​car by ​tomorrow.B2 to ​trust someone or something or to ​expect him, her, or it to ​behave in a ​particular way:British ​weather can never be relied on – it’s always ​changing.[+ -ing verb] Don’t rely on ​finding me here when you get back (= I might have gone).

fictional adjective

UK   US   /ˈfɪk.ʃən.əl/

C2 imaginary:a fictional ​storyfictional ​characters

peer verb [I usually + adv/prep]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

C2 to ​lookcarefully or with ​difficulty:When no one ​answered the ​door, she peered through the ​windowto ​see if anyone was there.The ​driver was peering into the ​distancetrying to ​read the ​roadsign.

More examples

peer noun [C]

UK   /pɪər/  US   /pɪr/

peer noun [C] (EQUAL)

C1 a ​person who is the same ​age or has the same ​socialpositionor the same ​abilities as other ​people in a ​group:Do you ​think it’s ​true that ​teenagegirls are less ​self-confident than ​theirmale peers?He wasn’t a ​greatscholar, but as a ​teacher he had few peers (= not as many ​people had the same ​ability as him).

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