purpose and types of text part 2 – Level 2 Group 1 class notes – 9th February 2016


1. Discuss tone and purpose in a variety of texts

2. Discuss different types of text

3. Review specialist vocabulary using Kahoot!

4. Discuss the format of an informal email and write a 2nd informal email


Today’s words:

insight noun [C or U]

C1 (the ​ability to have) a ​clear, ​deep, and sometimes ​suddenunderstanding of a ​complicatedproblem or ​situation:It was an ​interestingbook, ​full of ​fascinating insights intohumanrelationships.

portray verb [T]

C2 to ​represent or ​describe someone or something in a ​painting, ​film, ​book, or other ​artisticwork:The ​painting portrays a ​beautifulyoungwoman in a ​bluedress.The ​writer portrays ​life in a ​smallvillageat the ​turn of the ​century.portray sb as sth If a ​person in a ​film, ​book, etc. is portrayed as a ​particulartype of ​character, they are ​represented in that way:The ​father in the ​film is portrayed as a ​fairlyunpleasantcharacter.

portrait noun [C]

B2 a ​painting, ​photograph, ​drawing, etc. of a ​person or, less ​commonly, of a ​group of ​people:She’s ​commissioned an ​artist to ​painther portrait/​paint a portrait of her.a portrait ​gallerya portrait ​painter A ​film or ​book that is a portrait of something ​describes or ​representsthat thing in a ​detailed way:Her ​latestnovelpaints a very ​vividportrait of the ​aristocracy in the 1920s.

depict verb [T]

C2 to ​represent or show something in a ​picture or ​story:Her ​paintings depict the ​lives of ​ordinarypeople in the last ​century.In the ​book, he depicts his ​father as a ​tyrant.[+ -ing verb] People were ​shocked by the ​advertisement which depicted a woman ​beating her ​husband.

illustrate verb [T]

  • illustrate verb [T] (DRAW PICTURES)

B2 to ​drawpictures for a ​book, ​magazine, etc.:a ​beautifully illustrated ​book/​oldmanuscript
  • illustrate verb [T] (EXPLAIN)

C1 to show the ​meaning or ​truth of something more ​clearly, ​especiallyby giving ​examples:The ​lecturer illustrated his ​point with a ​diagram on the ​blackboard.This ​latestconflictfurther illustrates the ​weakness of the UN.

sway verb

  • sway verb (MOVE)

[I] to ​moveslowly from ​side to ​side:The ​trees were swaying in the ​wind.The ​movement of the ​shipcaused the ​mast to sway from ​side to ​side/back and ​forth.A ​drunk was ​standing in the ​middle of the ​street, swaying ​uncertainly and ​trying hard to ​stayupright.

[T] to ​cause something to ​move or ​change:Recent ​developments have swayed the ​balance of ​power in the ​region.

 promote verb (ENCOURAGE)

B2 [T] to ​encouragepeople to like, ​buy, use, do, or ​support something:Advertising ​companies are always having to ​think up new ​ways to promote ​products.The Institute is ​intended to promote an ​understanding of the ​politics and ​cultureof the ​Arabworld.Greenpeace ​works to promote ​awareness of the ​dangers that ​threatenourplanet today.It has ​long been ​known that ​regularexercise promotes ​all-round good ​health.

expend iconexpend iconMore examples

convince verb [T]

B1 to ​persuade someone or make someone ​certain:He ​managed to convince the ​jury of his ​innocence.[+ (that)] It’s ​uselesstrying to convince her (that) she doesn’t need to ​lose any ​weight.[+ to infinitive] I ​hope this will convince you tochangeyourmind.

  • tone noun (GENERAL MOOD)

C2 [S] the ​generalmood or ​mainqualities of something:I didn’t like the ​jokey tone of the ​article – I ​thought it was ​inappropriate.Trust you to lower the tone of the ​evening by ​tellingdisgustingjokes, ​Mark!Both ​candidates need to raise the tone of the ​campaign, as the ​electorate is ​tired of ​negativecampaigning.He was in a very ​badmood when he ​arrived, and that set the tone for the ​wholemeeting.

surreal adjective

strange; not ​seemingreal; like a ​dream:Driving through the ​totaldarkness was a ​slightly surreal ​experience.

surreal art:  Surrealistic paintings by Vladimir Kush

surreal art: The Persistence of Memory (1931) by Salvador Dali:

condemn verb [T]

C2 to ​criticize something or someone ​strongly, usually for ​moralreasons:The ​terroristaction has been condemned as an ​act of ​barbarismand ​cowardice.The ​film was condemned foritssexism.

concur verb [I]

to ​agree or have the same ​opinion:The new ​report concurs withpreviousfindings.[+ that] The ​board concurred that the ​editor should have ​fullcontrol over ​editorialmatters.[+ speech] “I ​think you’re ​absolutelyright,” concurred Chris.

vigorous adjective

very ​forceful or ​energetic:a vigorous ​debateThere has been vigorous ​opposition to the ​proposals for a new ​road.He ​takes plenty of vigorous ​exercise. healthy and ​strong:Cutting the ​bush back in the ​autumn will ​helppromote vigorous ​growth in the ​spring.

outrageous adjective

B2 shocking and ​morallyunacceptable:The ​judgecriticized the “outrageous ​greed” of some of the ​bankers.[+ that] It is outrageous that these ​buildingsremainempty while thousands of ​people have no ​homes.These ​prices are just outrageous (= much too high). used to ​describe something or someone that is ​shockingbecause they are ​unusual or ​strange:outrageous ​clothes/​behaviouran outrageous ​character

opinionated adjective

An opininated ​person is ​certain about ​theirbeliefs, and ​expressestheirideasstrongly and often:He was opinionated and ​selfish, but ​undeniablyclever.

tone noun


B2 [U] a ​quality in the ​voice that ​expresses the speaker’s ​feelingsor ​thoughts, often towards the ​person being ​spoken to:I ​tried to use a ​sympathetic tone of ​voice.Don’t ​speak to me in that tone of ​voice (= ​angrily), ​younglady!It wasn’t so much what she said that ​annoyed me – it was her tone.
  • tone noun (GENERAL MOOD)

C2 [S] the ​generalmood or ​mainqualities of something:I didn’t like the ​jokey tone of the ​article – I ​thought it was ​inappropriate.Trust you to lower the tone of the ​evening by ​tellingdisgustingjokes, ​Mark!Both ​candidates need to raise the tone of the ​campaign, as the ​electorate is ​tired of ​negativecampaigning.He was in a very ​badmood when he ​arrived, and that set the tone for the ​wholemeeting.

condolence noun [C usually plural, U]

sympathy and ​sadness for the ​family or ​closefriends of a ​person who has ​recentlydied, or an ​expression of this, ​especially in written ​form:a ​letter of condolenceDignitaries from all over the ​world came to offertheir condolences.

offer verb

offer verb (AGREE TO GIVE)

A2 [I or T] to ​ask someone if they would like to have something or if they would like you to do something:[+ two objects] I ​feelbad that I didn’t offer them any ​food/offer any ​food to them.She was offered a ​job in Paris.Can I offer you (= would you like) a ​drink?
make an offer C2 (also put in an offer) to say ​officially that you would like to ​buy something, ​especially a ​house, at a ​particularprice:They were ​asking €180,000 for the ​apartment, so I put in an offer of €170,000.I’ve made an offer on a ​house in Pine Banks.
B1 a ​reduction in the ​usualprice of ​sth, usually for a ​shortperiod:Don’t ​miss out on ​ourlatest offer.on offer B2 available to be ​bought or used:We were ​amazed at the ​range of ​products on offer.
on (special) offer B1 UK If ​goods in a ​shop are on (​special) offer, they are being ​sold at a ​lowerprice than ​usual.under offer UK If a ​house is under offer, someone has already ​suggested a ​particularprice at which they would be ​willing to ​buy it.

influence noun [C or U]

B2 the ​power to have an ​effect on ​people or things, or a ​personor thing that is ​able to do this:Helen’s a bad/good influence on him.He has a ​hugeamount of influence over the ​citycouncil.Christopher ​hoped to exert his influence to make them ​changetheirminds.At the ​time she was under the influence of her ​father.


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