Level 2 Group 2 – Class Notes – 8th October Level 2 Group 1 12th October

Objectives

  1. Moral dilemmas

  2. what is character

  3. writing a description using the personality words we have used in the past couple of lessons

  4. Using past simple, present simple & present perfect in a piece of writing

  5. practice proof-reading

  6. watch the exam video and practice discussion and listening

moral adjective

UK   /ˈmɒr.əl/  US   /ˈmɔːr-/

B2 relating to the ​standards of good or ​badbehaviour, ​fairness, ​honesty, etc. that each ​personbelieves in, ​rather than to ​laws:It’s her moral obligation to ​tell the ​police what she ​knows.It is not ​part of a novelist’s ​job to make a moral judgment.She was the only ​politician to ​condemn the ​proposedlaw on moral ​grounds (= for moral ​reasons).

dilemma noun [C]

UK   US   /daɪˈlem.ə/ /dɪ-/

B2 a ​situation in which a ​difficultchoice has to be made between two different things you could do:The ​president is ​clearly in a dilemma about/over how to ​tackle the ​crisis.She faces the dilemma ofdisobeying her ​father or losing the man she ​loves.a moral/​ethical dilemma

genetics noun [U]

UK   /dʒəˈnet.ɪks/  US   /-ˈnet̬-/

B2 the ​study of how, in all ​living things, the ​characteristics and ​qualities of ​parents are given to ​theirchildren by ​their genes

dreadlocks noun [plural]

UK   /ˈdred.lɒks/  US   /-lɑːks/ (informaldreads )

a ​hairstyle in which the ​hairhangs in ​longthicktwistedpieces

ginger noun (SPICE)

[U] the ​spicyroot of a ​tropicalplant that is used in ​cooking or ​preserved in ​sugar:ground (= ​powdered) gingercrystallized gingerginger ​biscuits/​cake

ginger noun (COLOUR)

[U] UK a ​red or orange-brown ​colour

congregation noun [C, + sing/pl verb]

UK   /ˌkɒŋ.ɡrɪˈɡeɪ.ʃən/  US   /ˌkɑːŋ-/

a ​group of ​people who have come together in a ​religiousbuilding for ​worship and ​prayer:The ​priestasked the congregation to ​kneel.

nationalism noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈnæʃ.ən.əl.ɪ.zəm/ /ˈnæʃ.nə.lɪ-/

a nation’s ​wish and ​attempt to be ​politicallyindependent a ​great or too ​greatlove of ​your own ​country:The ​bookdocuments the ​rise of the ​politicalright with ​itsaccompanyingstrands of nationalism and ​racism.

patriot noun [C]

UK   /ˈpæt.ri.ət/ /ˈpeɪ.tri-/  US   /ˈpeɪ.tri.ɑːt/

a ​person who ​lovestheircountry and, if ​necessary, will ​fightfor it

hedonism noun [U]

UK   US   /ˈhed.ən.ɪ.zəm/

living and ​behaving in ​ways that ​mean you get as much ​pleasure out of ​life as ​possible, ​according to the ​belief that the most ​important thing in ​life is to ​enjoy yourself

hedonist

noun [C] UK   US   /-ɪst/

hedonistic

adjective UK   US   /ˌhed.ənˈɪs.tɪk/

materialism noun [U]

UK   /məˈtɪə.ri.ə.lɪ.zəm/  US   /-ˈtɪr.i-/

materialism noun [U] (MONEY)

C2 the ​belief that having ​money and possessions is the most ​important thing in ​life:So have we ​become a ​self-centredsociety, ​preoccupied with materialism?

materialism noun [U] (PHYSICAL)

specialized social sciences, religion the ​belief that only ​physicalmatterexists and the ​spiritualworld does not

obstinate adjective

UK   /ˈɒb.stɪ.nət/  US   /ˈɑːb.stə-/

unreasonablydetermined, ​especially to ​act in a ​particular way and not to ​change at all, ​despite what anyone ​else says:He can be very obstinate at ​times.her obstinate ​refusal to ​compromise [before noun] used to ​describe a ​problem, ​situation, or thing that is ​difficult to ​deal with, ​remove, or ​defeat:obstinate ​weedsInvading ​troopsmet with obstinate ​resistance by ​guerrillaforces.

desperate adjective

UK   /ˈdes.pər.ət/  US   /-pɚ-/

desperate adjective (SERIOUS)

C2 very ​serious or ​bad:desperate ​povertya desperate shortage of ​food/​suppliesThe situation is desperate – we have no ​food, very little ​water and no ​medicalsupplies. very ​great or ​extreme:The ​earthquakesurvivors are in desperate need of ​help.He has a desperate ​desire to ​succeed.

dispirited adjective

UK   /dɪˈspɪr.ɪ.tɪd/  US   /-t̬ɪd/

not ​feeling much ​hope about a ​particularsituation or ​problem:The ​troops were dispirited and ​disorganized.

dispiriting

adjective UK   /-tɪŋ/  US   /-t̬ɪŋ/

It was a ​bit dispiriting to ​see so few ​people at the ​meeting.

personality noun

UK   /ˌpɜː.sənˈæl.ə.ti/  US   /ˌpɝː.sənˈæl.ə.t̬i/

personality noun (CHARACTER)

B2 [C or U] the ​type of ​person you are, ​shown by the way you ​behave, ​feel, and ​think:She has a very ​warm personality.He is well ​qualified for the ​job, but he does ​lack personality (= he is a ​boringperson).

More examples

personality noun (FAMOUS PERSON)

B2 [C] a ​famousperson:The show is ​hosted by a ​popular TV personality.

character noun

UK   /ˈkær.ɪk.tər/  US   /ˈker.ɪk.tɚ/

character noun (QUALITY)

B1 [C or U] the ​particularcombination of ​qualities in a ​person or ​place that makes them different from ​others:Politeness is ​traditionallypart of the British character.It would be very out of character (= not ​typical) of her to ​lie.One of the joys of being a ​parent is ​watching the child’s character ​develop

xenophobia noun [U]

UK   /ˌzen.əˈfəʊ.bi.ə/  US   /-ˈfoʊ-/

C2 extremedislike or ​fear of foreigners, ​theircustoms, ​theirreligions, etc.
xenophobic

adjective UK   US  

.

spiritual adjective

UK   US  /ˈspɪr.ɪ.tju.əl/

B2 relating to ​deepfeelings and ​beliefs, ​especiallyreligiousbeliefs:Traditional ​ways of ​lifefulfilled both ​economic and spiritual ​needs.

spiritualism noun [U]

UK   US  /ˈspɪr.ɪ.tju.əl.ɪ.zəm/

the ​belief that ​livingpeople can ​communicate with ​people who have ​died
spiritualist

noun [C]

values plural noun

US   /ˈvæl·juz/

the ​principles that ​help you to ​decidewhat is ​right and ​wrong, and how to ​act in ​varioussituations:The ​politicalplatform is ​based on ​traditional values ​associated with the ​ruralSouth.

self-conscious adjective

UK   /ˌselfˈkɒn.ʃəs/  US   /-ˈkɑːn-/

C1 nervous or ​uncomfortable because you are ​worried about what ​peoplethink about you or ​youractions:He ​lookeduncomfortable, like a self-conscious ​adolescent.

More examples
self-consciously

adverb

narcissist noun [C]

UK   /ˈnɑː.sɪ.sɪst/  US  /ˈnɑːr.sə-/

someone who has too much ​admiration for himself or herself
narcissistic

adjective UK   /ˌnɑː.sɪˈsɪs.tɪk/  US   /ˌnɑːr.sə-/

a narcissistic ​personality

too much and too many

intensifying adverbs

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